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Case Reports in Pediatrics publishes case reports and case series related to pediatric subspecialities such as adolescent medicine, cardiology, critical care, dentistry, developmental and behavioral medicine, endocrinology, gastroenterology etc.
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Pediatric Collagenous Gastroenterocolitis Successfully Treated with Methotrexate
A two-and-one-half-year-old previously healthy female presented with a ten-week history of watery diarrhea, nonbilious and nonbloody emesis, and low-grade fevers. She was found to have severe hypoalbuminemia and hypogammaglobulinemia. Her symptoms persisted, and she became dependent on parenteral nutrition. Biopsies obtained during subsequent endoscopic and colonoscopic studies revealed findings consistent with collagenous gastroenterocolitis. She responded to an empiric course of prednisone, but her symptoms recurred shortly after transitioning to oral budesonide. After successful reinduction with intravenous prednisone, intramuscular methotrexate was initiated. She remained asymptomatic during a 15-month course of therapy, and she continued to do well clinically until approximately nine months after weaning off methotrexate. At that point, she experienced a recurrence of diarrhea, and repeat endoscopic evaluation confirmed collagenous colitis. This responded nicely to a short course of oral budesonide, and she has since remained asymptomatic and off any therapy.
Congenital Cytomegalovirus Infection Presenting with Hyperbilirubinemia and Splenomegaly in a Term Infant with Trisomy 21
Congenital cytomegalovirus infection (cCMV) is very common, yet the presentation can be varied, making the diagnosis challenging. However, early diagnosis for treatment with medication in symptomatic cases within the first month of life is critical. Hyperbilirubinemia and splenomegaly are less common manifestations at birth and may be overlooked in the setting of other symptoms, especially in a critically ill neonate. We present a case of a term infant with trisomy 21 who presented with isolated hyperbilirubinemia and splenomegaly and was later diagnosed with congenital CMV.
Hemoglobin Sunshine Seth: A Case Report of Low-Oxygen-Affinity Hemoglobinopathy
Pulse oximetry is routinely used in the newborn nursery for clinical monitoring and to detect critical congenital heart disease. The differential diagnoses for reduced peripheral oxygen saturation in an infant include congenital heart disease, respiratory distress syndrome, transient tachypnea of the newborn, persistent pulmonary hypertension of the newborn, meconium aspiration syndrome, pneumonia, pneumothorax, and sepsis. The diagnostic evaluation for neonatal hypoxemia can be invasive and expensive. When this evaluation is unrevealing, other interventions may be tried without clear benefit to the patient, including, but not limited to, supplemental oxygen. Therefore, it is important to consider alternative, albeit rare, diagnoses, including hemoglobinopathies with abnormal oxygen binding properties. Mutations in the structure of alpha- and beta-globin chains can alter the affinity of hemoglobin for oxygen, and changes in oxygen affinity may result in changes in the oxygen saturation detected by pulse oximetry. These changes may or may not be of clinical significance. This case report describes Hemoglobin Sunshine Seth, a rare low-oxygen-affinity hemoglobin variant presenting as reduced peripheral oxygen saturation in an otherwise well-appearing infant male.
Hepatic Failure following Metronidazole in Children with Cockayne Syndrome
Cockayne syndrome is an uncommon autosomal recessive disease characterized by microcephaly, abnormal growth, and pathologic premature aging. The purpose of this report is to evaluate liver failure in children with Cockayne syndrome following metronidazole administration. The first case was a 2-year-old boy with Cockayne syndrome. He had been treated with metronidazole for gastroenteritis. 48 hours after treatment initiation, he was hospitalized due to jaundice, intractable vomiting, and agitation. Unfortunately, he died of acute liver failure. The second case was a 5-year-old boy with Cockayne syndrome as well, who had been treated with amoxicillin and metronidazole for a dental infection. He developed jaundice, drowsiness, lethargy, and anorexia after treatment. At hospital, the child received supportive treatment, and his general condition gradually improved. The liver enzyme levels decreased. He was finally discharged in good general condition. The mortality after metronidazole consumption in patients with Cockayne syndrome due to liver failure is very high. The awareness of the dangers of using metronidazole in these patients is valuable.
Clinical and Biochemical Features in a Case of Familial Hypocalciuric Hypercalcemia Type 3 with AP2S1 Gene Mutation in Codon Arg15His
Familial hypocalciuric hypercalcemia (FHH) is usually a benign condition divided into three types. FHH-3 occurs in about 20% of the cases and is caused due to missense mutations in AP2S1 (adaptor-related protein complex 2 subunit sigma 1) involving the codon Arg15 (p.R15). We report a case of FHH-3 with a heterozygous mutation in the AP2S1 gene on chr19_47349359 C>T, c.44G>A, p.Arg15His. There are a handful of reports describing the clinical features in patients diagnosed with FHH-3. Herein, we describe the laboratory and clinical features associated with a case of FHH-3 with mutation in the Arg15His codon of the AP2S1 gene.
Intraluminal Duplication of the Terminal Ileum with Ectopic Gastric Mucosa in an Infant: A Rare Cause of Intussusception
Enteric duplication cysts are rare malformations mostly diagnosed before the age of two, with varied clinical presentations. Ectopic gastrointestinal epithelium can be present, and management involves surgical resection. A three-month-old girl presented with rectal bleeding due to an ileocolic intussusception. Abdominal ultrasound revealed a target sign in the right upper part of the abdomen. At hydrostatic contrast enema, an incomplete reduction of the intussusception was obtained: only a trickle of contrast material entered the terminal ileum. An exploratory laparotomy ensued with manual reduction of the intussusception. At the end of the maneuver, a soft intraluminal mass was palpated within the ileocecal valve. Thus, an ileocecal resection was performed. At histology, an intraluminal enteric duplication cyst was documented, containing ectopic gastric mucosa. Secondary intussusception should be suspected even in infants in case of abnormal findings at hydrostatic contrast enema. Intraluminal enteric duplication cysts may be a rare cause of intussusception.