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Case Reports in Pediatrics publishes case reports and case series related to pediatric subspecialities such as adolescent medicine, cardiology, critical care, dentistry, developmental and behavioral medicine, endocrinology, gastroenterology etc.
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Perforated Duodenal Ulcer in a Young Nepalese Girl: An Infrequent Diagnosis for Age
Perforated duodenal ulcer (PDU) is exceedingly uncommon in children. In a child with acute abdomen and pneumoperitoneum, an appendiceal etiology is more often suspected as a likely cause. Failure or delay to diagnose a PDU can result in significant morbidity and even mortality. We report a case of acute abdomen in a girl with PDU with a successful outcome. A 12-year-old school girl presented to emergency room (ER) with acute generalized abdominal pain for 2 days. Clinical examination revealed florid peritonitis, and abdominal radiographs showed free peritoneal air. At emergency laparotomy, PDU was noted with general peritoneal contamination. Omental patch repair and continued supportive care resulted in gradual improvement. PDU is an uncommon cause of peritonitis in children and poses significant challenges in management. Strong suspicion and prompt appropriate intervention is necessary to avoid untoward outcomes.
Fetal Gallstones in a Newborn after Maternal COVID-19 Infection
Fetal gallstones are rare incidental findings on ultrasound during pregnancy. We describe a newborn girl with gallstones that was born to a mother who had COVID-19 infection during her last trimester. The baby remained asymptomatic, and the stones resolved spontaneously without any treatment or complications within six weeks of birth. Several conditions predispose to fetal gallstones, and it is unclear if the recent maternal COVID-19 infection had any role in the occurrence of these abnormalities or was merely coincidental. This is the first case describing an association of fetal gallstones with a COVID-19 infection in pregnancy.
Treatment of Shiga-Toxin Hus with Severe Neurologic Features with Eculizumab
Hemolytic Uremic Syndrome (HUS) is a constellation of microangiopathic hemolytic anemia, thrombocytopenia, and acute renal failure. Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli- (STEC-) mediated HUS is a common cause of acute renal failure in children and can rarely result in severe neurological complications such as encephalopathy, seizures, cerebrovascular accidents, and coma. Current literature supports use of eculizumab, a monoclonal antibody that blocks complement activation, in atypical HUS (aHUS). However, those with neurologic complications from STEC-HUS have complement activation and deposition of aggregates in microvasculature and may be treated with eculizumab. In this case report, we describe a 3-year-old boy with diarrhea-positive STEC-HUS who developed severe neurologic involvement in addition to acute renal failure requiring renal replacement therapy. He was initiated on eculizumab therapy, with clinical improvement and organ recovery. This case highlights systemic complications of STEC-HUS in a pediatric patient. The current literature is limited but has suggested a role for complement mediation in cases with severe complications. We review the importance of early recognition of complications, use of eculizumab, and current data available.
Septo-Optic Dysplasia Diagnosed in a Newborn Infant with Normoglycemia: The Importance of Thorough Physical Examination
A newborn male infant was admitted to the neonatal intensive care unit due to suspected sepsis. He was clinically stable with normal electrolyte levels on admission. However, he was noted to have micropenis and bilateral nonpalpable testes. Ultrasound imaging confirmed the presence of both gonads in the inguinal canal, with no Müllerian structures visualized. Laboratory examination revealed an undetectable random plasma cortisol level; subsequent ACTH stimulation testing confirmed adrenal insufficiency. Further testing revealed additional pituitary hormone deficiencies, and the infant was started on multiple hormone replacement therapies. Magnetic resonance imaging identified absent septum pellucidum, pointing of the frontal horns, and optic nerve hypoplasia. A diagnosis of septo-optic dysplasia was made based on this combination of findings. This case highlights the importance of thorough physical examination in newborn infants, which may reveal the only sign of underlying pathology in the absence of other concerning findings.
Ebstein’s Anomaly, Left Ventricular Noncompaction and Gerbode-Like Defect Triad (Fetal Diagnosis and Neonatal Course)
Ebstein’s anomaly is characterized by the apical displacement of the septal and posterior leaflets of the tricuspid valve with atrialization of the right ventricle (RV). It is commonly associated with other heart defects including left ventricular noncompaction. We describe a case of prenatally diagnosed Ebstein’s anomaly in association with left ventricular noncompaction and a septal defect between the left ventricle and the atrialized portion of the RV (Gerbode-like defect). The patient underwent a modified Blalock−Taussig shunt followed by Glenn procedure because of severe RV hypoplasia and RV outflow tract obstruction. The patient tolerated both procedures and is doing clinically well in anticipation of Fontan procedure for single ventricle palliation.
Psoas Hydatid Cyst in Children: A Rare Localization about a Case
Introduction. The development of hydatid cysts in the muscle is rare, and it is even rarer in children. We report the case of a 9-year-old child treated in pediatric orthopedics department at the University Hospital of Marrakech for a hydatid cyst psoas muscle revealed by lameness. Result. The child was consulted for painless and afebrile lameness of the left hip evolving since 3 months. The clinical examination finds a mass of the left flank. Investigations based on the abdominal ultrasound in first intention showed a hydatid cyst depending on the left psoas muscle. Pelvic CT and abdominal MRI were able to confirm the diagnosis and allowed a better study of the cyst neighboring elements. The drainage of the cyst followed by pericystectomy after evacuation of the vesicles contained in the cyst was done as radical treatment. Conclusion. The hydatid cyst of the psoas is a rare entity in the child requiring a good radiological study of the cyst as well as its neighboring elements to propose the most adapted surgery.