Ovarian Non-Hodgkin Lymphoma Revealed by Bone Metastasis: A Rare Pediatric CaseRead the full article
Case Reports in Pediatrics publishes case reports and case series related to pediatric subspecialities such as adolescent medicine, cardiology, critical care, dentistry, developmental and behavioral medicine, endocrinology, gastroenterology etc.
Case Reports in Pediatrics maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.
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COVID-19 in Children with Congenital Heart Diseases: A Multicenter Case Series from Iran
Background. Promptly discovering and counteracting COVID-19 is critical as it could have catastrophic effects. As an asymptomatic group, children are highly susceptible to be misdiagnosed, especially those suffering from underlying diseases. Furthermore, discriminating the direct effects of the virus from those of the underlying diseases can pose a dilemma to physicians. This case series aims to determine the relationship between COVID-19 and various types of congenial heart disease among children. Patients and Methods. Seven patients from three different medical centers were enrolled. Their detailed demographic information, past medical history, symptoms, type of congenital heart diseases, imaging tests, laboratory tests, medications, and outcomes were analyzed. Results. The patients included 4 infants, 1 child, and 2 adolescents, with a median age of 9 months and a majority of boys. All of them had either obstructive lesions (right or left ventricular outflow tracts) or significant pulmonary hypertension. The more common clinical symptoms were cough, dyspnea, and fever. Two patients did not survive the illness. Conclusion. Prompt treatment of patients with a combination of COVID-19 and severe obstructive cardiac pathology or pulmonary hypertension is essential due to a risk for serious and/or fatal consequences.
Rituximab Treatment in Acute Disseminated Encephalomyelitis Associated with Salmonella Infection
Acute disseminated encephalomyelitis (ADEM) is an inflammatory, demyelinating, and rapidly progressive disorder of the central nervous system. This condition is also known as postinfectious encephalomyelitis, and it is characterized by multifocal lesions in the brain and spinal cord with widespread neurological findings. High doses of intravenous (IV) methylprednisolone, intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG), and plasma exchange (PLEX) treatments comprise the first-line therapy. There are limited pediatric case reports refractory to standard treatment. Here, we present the case of a 17-year-old girl diagnosed with ADEM associated with Salmonella infection, which was treated with rituximab.
Vitamin D Deficiency Rickets and COVID-19 Pandemic
In a breastfed infant, the main source of vitamin D comes from the mother. Thus, maternal vitamin D deficiency is the key reason for vitamin D deficiency (VDD) and rickets during infancy. As they grow older, inadequate sun exposure, diet and lack of supplements also contribute. Individuals with darker skin require at least three to five times longer exposure to the sun than a person with lighter skin to produce adequate endogenous vitamin D. Not many food items naturally contain vitamin D; most of those are less affordable to the poor. We report an 18-month-old child with vitamin D deficiency rickets during strict self-isolation measures during the coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic. Prolonged periods of confining indoors, low dietary intake of vitamin D, economic distress, maternal deficiency, and nonsupplementation could have contributed to vitamin D deficiency rickets in this child. During an unprecedented pandemic of this nature, simple sun exposure and diet advice may suffice for most. This case report highlights the importance of strengthening individuals and communities with information and formulating strong public health policies to prevent vitamin D deficiency.
Acute Rheumatic Fever in a COVID-19-Positive Pediatric Patient
Bacterial coinfection and COVID-19 have been reported in pediatric populations. We describe a case of Sydenham’s chorea, which is exceedingly rare in developed countries, with concurrent COVID-19. Discussed here is the clinical course of an 8-year-old COVID-positive female with pure Sydenham’s chorea and subclinical carditis from acute rheumatic fever. To our knowledge, there are no documented reports of acute rheumatic fever in a pediatric patient with coexisting COVID-19 infection.
A Catheter-Related Bloodstream Infection by Brevibacterium casei in a Child with Acute Myeloid Leukemia: Case Report and Literature Review
The most common organisms isolated from pediatric catheter-related bloodstream infections (CRBSIs) are Gram-positive cocci, such as coagulase-negative staphylococci and Staphylococcus aureus. There are few formal reports of Brevibacterium casei infection and even fewer reports of CRBSI due to this Gram-positive rod. Here we report the first case of CRBSI due to B. casei in an 8-year-old girl with acute myeloid leukemia in Japan. The isolate exhibited decreased susceptibility to ß-lactam antibiotics. Antimicrobial therapy with meropenem and vancomycin, in addition to the removal of central venous catheter line, consequently led to a significant clinical improvement of the patient’s symptoms. A literature review found available clinical courses in 16 cases (4 pediatric cases including our case) of B. casei infection. Our case and those in literature suggested that B. casei infection often occurs in patients with indwelling central venous catheters; the literature review further suggested that removal of central venous catheters is required in most cases. Special attention should be paid to the detection of opportunistic infections due to Brevibacterium spp. in immunocompromized children who are using a central venous catheter.
Low-Dose Prednisone Treatment for IVIG-Resistant Kawasaki Disease with Severe Arthritis and Joint Effusion in Two 3-Year-Old Children
Kawasaki disease (KD) is a global disease in children. The etiology and pathogenesis are unknown. Complications vary among patients. Fever can persist in some after immune globulin (IVIG) administration, termed IVIG-resistant KD. Here, we report two cases of IVIG-resistant KD with severe arthritis. The diagnosis of arthritis was confirmed by magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) showing joint effusion. Remarkably, fever and joint pain had not receded after the second dose of IVIG. To further manage the symptoms, we prescribed low-dose oral prednisone with success. Both fever and joint pain were diminished. We ponder that the low-dose prednisone might be an option to treat IVIG-resistant KD with severe arthritis.