Table 1: Patient data.

Age of
patient
in years
Reason
for referral
Pubertal stagingLaboratory evaluation
Testes
Length in cm
Tanner
Stage Pubic hair
PenisFSH IU/L
(normal range) [1]
LH
IU/L
(normal range) [1]
Testosterone
nmol/L
(normal range) [2]

Case 1: 16 Short
stature
2 3Adult15.03
(0.16–3.7)
12.04
(0.25–2.7)
14.65 (<0.17)
Case 2: 16.5 Gynecomastia3.2 4Adult37.5
(0.18–12)
28.2
(0.34–5.0)
11.24 (<5.79)
Case 3: 19 Delayed
puberty
3 4Adult 14.6
(0.18–12)
17
(0.34–5.0)
13.15 (<5.79)
Case 4: 17 Germ cell
tumor and
small testes
2.5 5Adult16.13
(0.18–12)
32
(0.34–5.0)
4.788 (<5.79)

Legend: testes <2.5 cm are prepubertal [3] and 2.5–3.2 cm represent first stage of puberty. Normal ranges of FSH, LH, and testosterone in parenthesis are 2.5th to 97.5th percentile values for corresponding testicular pubertal stage. Though all patients are of similar age range, their testicular pubertal stage is different and hence their normal testosterone levels are different.