Table 1: Differential diagnosis of emesis during childhood.

InfantChildAdolescent

Common
GastroenteritisGastroenteritisGastroenteritis
Gastroesophageal refluxSystemic infectionGERD
OverfeedingGastritisSystemic infection
Anatomic obstructionToxic ingestionToxic ingestion
Systemic infectionPertussis syndromeGastritis
Pertussis syndromeMedicationSinusitis
Otitis mediaReflux (GERD)Inflammatory bowel disease
SinusitisAppendicitis
Otitis mediaMigraine
Pregnancy
Medication
Ipecac abuse/bulimia

Rare
Adrenogenital syndromeReye’s syndromeReye’s syndrome
Inborn error of metabolismHepatitisHepatitis
Brain tumor (increased intracranial pressure)Peptic ulcerPeptic ulcer
PancreatitisPancreatitis
Subdural hemorrhageBrain tumorBrain tumor
Food poisoningIncreased intracranial pressureIncreased intracranial pressure
RuminationMiddle ear diseaseMiddle ear disease
Renal tubular acidosisChemotherapyChemotherapy
AchalasiaCyclic vomiting (migraine)
Cyclic vomiting (migraine)Biliary colic
Esophageal strictureRenal colic
Duodenal hematoma
Inborn error of metabolism