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Case Reports in Pediatrics
Volume 2017, Article ID 8418105, 4 pages
Case Report

Late Onset Streptococcus agalactiae Meningitis following Early Onset Septicemia: A Preventable Disease?

1The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
2Faculty of Medicine, The Chinese University of Hong Kong, Shatin, Hong Kong
3Department of Paediatrics, Prince of Wales Hospital, Shatin, Hong Kong
4Department of Pediatrics, The University of Calgary, Calgary, AB, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to Kam Lun Hon; moc.liamtoh@nohe

Received 14 June 2017; Accepted 24 August 2017; Published 1 October 2017

Academic Editor: Roland Broadbent

Copyright © 2017 Kam Lun Hon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


We report a neonate who presented with early onset Streptococcus agalactiae or group B streptococcus (GBS) septicemia within 24 hours of birth. After discharge at day 14, she went on to develop late onset GBS meningitis at 36 days of age. The infant was treated with intravenous antibiotics on both occasions and eventually discharged home with no apparent sequelae. We address issues associated with GBS infection in infancy including the demographics, risk factors, and the risk of late onset GBS meningitis following an early onset GBS infection. The major source of GBS in early onset GBS disease is maternal birth canal GBS colonization. On the other hand, nosocomial cross-infection is an important source of GBS in late onset disease. Penicillin remains the current treatment of choice for GBS infection. Given the rapid onset and progression within hours of birth and lack of an effective solution for preventing late onset GBS, administration of an effective GBS vaccine in pregnancy could provide a sensible and cost-effective solution in all settings.