Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Psychiatry
Volume 2014, Article ID 124564, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/124564
Case Report

Cognitive Restructuring and Graded Behavioural Exposure for Delusional Appraisals of Auditory Hallucinations and Comorbid Anxiety in Paranoid Schizophrenia

1National Health Service, South Essex Partnership University NHS Foundation Trust, Psychosis and Complex Mental Health Specialist Interest Group, Disability Resource Centre, Poynters House, Poynters Road, Dunstable LU54TP, UK
2National Health Service, Lincolnshire Partnership NHS Foundation Trust, Adult Mental Health Rehabilitation Specialty, Discovery House, Long Leys Road, Lincoln LN11FS, UK

Received 28 May 2014; Revised 25 August 2014; Accepted 27 August 2014; Published 11 September 2014

Academic Editor: Erik Jönsson

Copyright © 2014 Pawel D. Mankiewicz and Colin Turner. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. S. R. Jones, “Do we need multiple models of auditory verbal hallucinations? Examining the phenomenological fit of cognitive and neurological models,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 36, no. 3, pp. 566–575, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. Division of Clinical Psychology, Recent Advances in Understanding Mental Illness and Psychotic Experiences, Division of Clinical Psychology, Leicester, UK, 2000.
  3. R. van Winkel, N. C. Stefanis, and I. Myin-Germeys, “Psychosocial stress and psychosis: a review of the neurobiological mechanisms and the evidence for gene-stress interaction,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 34, no. 6, pp. 1095–1105, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. P. Allen, A. Aleman, and P. K. McGuire, “Inner speech models of auditory verbal hallucinations: evidence from behavioural and neuroimaging studies,” International Review of Psychiatry, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 409–417, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. C. Barrowclough, G. Haddock, T. Wykes et al., “Integrated motivational interviewing and cognitive behavioural therapy for people with psychosis and comorbid substance misuse: randomised controlled trial,” British Medical Journal, vol. 341, pp. 1–12, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. D. C. D'Souza, E. Perry, L. MacDougall et al., “The psychotomimetic effects of intravenous delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol in healthy individuals: implications for psychosis,” Neuropsychopharmacology, vol. 29, no. 8, pp. 1558–1572, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. D. C. D'Souza, W. M. Abi-Saab, S. Madonick et al., “Delta-9-tetrahydrocannabinol effects in schizophrenia: Implications for cognition, psychosis, and addiction,” Biological Psychiatry, vol. 57, no. 6, pp. 594–608, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. R. E. Drake and K. T. Mueser, “Co-occurring alcohol use disorder and schizophrenia,” Alcohol Research and Health, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 99–101, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. A. P. Morrison, J. C. Renton, H. Dunn, S. Williams, and R. P. Bentall, Cognitive Therapy for Psychosis: A Formulation-Based Approach, Routledge, London, UK, 2004.
  10. A. Marneros and H. S. Akiskal, Eds., The Overlap of Affective and Schizophrenic Spectra, Cambridge University Press, Cambridge, UK, 2007.
  11. J. Good, “The effect of treatment of a comorbid anxiety disorder on psychotic symptoms in a patient with a diagnosis of schizophrenia: a case study,” Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 30, no. 3, pp. 347–350, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. S. Vaughan and D. Fowler, “The distress experienced by voice hearers is associated with perceived relationship between the voice hearer and the voice,” The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 43, no. 2, pp. 143–153, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. R. M. G. Norman and A. K. Malla, “Dysphoric mood and symptomatology in schizophrenia,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 897–903, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. R. P. Bentall, Madness Explained: Psychosis and Human Nature, Penguin Books, London, UK, 2003.
  15. C. Steel, “Cognitive behaviour therapy for psychosis: current evidence and future directions,” Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 36, no. 6, pp. 705–712, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. D. Freeman, P. A. Garety, E. Kuipers, D. Fowler, and P. E. Bebbington, “A cognitive model of persecutory delusions,” British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 331–347, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. P. D. Mankiewicz, D. M. Gresswell, and C. Turner, “Subjective wellbeing in psychosis: mediating effects of psychological distress on happiness levels amongst individuals diagnosed with paranoid schizophrenia,” International Journal of Wellbeing, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 35–59, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  18. H. Dunn, “Cognitive therapy for psychosis: emphasising engagement,” in A Casebook of Cognitive Therapy for Psychosis, A. P. Morrison, Ed., pp. 37–58, Routledge, London, UK, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  19. A. Roth and P. Fonagy, What Works for Whom? A Critical Overview of Psychotherapy Research, Guilford Press, New York, NY, USA, 2nd edition, 2005.
  20. T. Christodoulides, R. Dudley, S. Brown, D. Turkington, and A. T. Beck, “Cognitive behaviour therapy in patients with schizophrenia who are not prescribed antipsychotic medication: a case series,” Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, vol. 81, no. 2, pp. 199–207, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. J. Farhall, N. C. Freeman, F. Shawyer, and T. Trauer, “An effectiveness trial of cognitive behaviour therapy in a representative sample of outpatients with psychosis,” The British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 48, no. 1, pp. 47–62, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. N. Tarrier, C. Kinney, E. McCarthy et al., “Are some types of psychotic symptoms more responsive to cognitive-behaviour therapy?” Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 45–55, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. O. Luzón, C. Harrop, and F. Nolan, “Cognitive processes during acute psychosis: the role of heightened responsibility and catastrophic misinterpretations,” Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 357–377, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Schizophrenia: Core Interventions in the Treatment and Management of Schizophrenia in Adults in Primary and Secondary Care, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, London, UK, 2009.
  25. National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, Psychosis and Schizophrenia in Adults: Treatment and Management, National Institute for Health and Care Excellence, London, UK, 2014.
  26. K. Berry and G. Haddock, “The implementation of the NICE guidelines for schizophrenia: barriers to the implementation of psychological interventions and recommendations for the future,” Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, vol. 81, no. 4, pp. 419–436, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. D. Mankiewicz and C. Turner, “Do assertive outreach clients with experiences of psychosis receive the NICE recommended cognitive-behavioural interventions? An audit,” Clinical Psychology Forum, no. 240, pp. 32–37, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. L. R. Derogatis and N. Melisaratos, “The Brief Symptom Inventory: an introductory report,” Psychological Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3, pp. 595–605, 1983. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. L. R. Derogatis, Brief Symptom Inventory: Administration, Scoring, and Procedures Manual, Pearson, Minneapolis, Minn, USA, 4th edition, 1993.
  30. V. M. Francis, P. Rajan, and N. Turner, “British community norms for the Brief Symptom Inventory,” British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 29, no. 1, pp. 115–116, 1990. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. C. Ryan, “British outpatient norms for the brief symptom inventory,” Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, vol. 80, no. 2, pp. 183–191, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Smith, P. Nathan, U. Juniper, P. Kingsep, and L. Lim, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychotic Symptoms: A Therapist’s Manual, Centre for Clinical Interventions, Northbridge, Wash, USA, 2003.
  33. C. Green, P. A. Garety, D. Freeman et al., “Content and affect in persecutory delusions,” British Journal of Clinical Psychology, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 561–577, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. N. Tarrier, “The use of coping strategies and self-regulation in the treatment of psychosis,” in A Casebook of Cognitive Therapy for Psychosis, A. P. Morrison, Ed., pp. 79–107, Routledge, London, UK, 2002. View at Google Scholar
  35. P. Chadwick, M. Birchwood, and P. Trower, Cognitive Therapy for Delusions, Voices and Paranoia, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1996.
  36. A. G. Gallagher, T. G. Dinan, and L. J. V. Baker, “The effects of varying auditory input on schizophrenic hallucinations: a replication,” British Journal of Medical Psychology, vol. 67, no. 1, pp. 67–75, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. S. Tai and D. Turkington, “The evolution of cognitive behavior therapy for schizophrenia: current practice and recent developments,” Schizophrenia Bulletin, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 865–873, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Hagen and H. M. Nordahl, “Behavioural experiments in the treatment of paranoid schizophrenia: a single case study,” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 296–305, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. N. A. Rector, “Homework use in cognitive therapy for psychosis: a case formulation approach,” Cognitive and Behavioral Practice, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 303–316, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. A. P. Morrison, J. C. Renton, P. French, and R. P. Bentall, Think you’re Crazy? Think Again: A Resource Book for Cognitive Therapy for Psychosis, Routledge, London, UK, 2008.
  41. D. Fowler, P. Garety, and E. Kuipers, Cognitive Behaviour Therapy for Psychosis: Theory and Practice, John Wiley & Sons, Chichester, UK, 1995.
  42. M. J. Lambert and D. E. Barley, “Research summary on the therapeutic relationship and psychotherapy outcome,” Psychotherapy: Theory, Research, Practice, Training, vol. 38, no. 4, pp. 357–361, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. H. Miles, E. Peters, and E. Kuipers, “Service-user satisfaction with CBT for psychosis,” Behavioural and Cognitive Psychotherapy, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 109–116, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. P. W. Nel, “Clinical psychology in the noughties: the good, the bad and the nice,” Clinical Psychology Forum, no. 214, pp. 7–11, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. G. Parry, “Developing treatment choice guidelines in psychotherapy,” Journal of Mental Health, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 273–281, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus