Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Case Reports in Psychiatry
Volume 2017, Article ID 2319094, 4 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2319094
Case Report

“Being with a Buddha”: A Case Report of Methoxetamine Use in a United States Veteran with PTSD

1Department of State Hospitals, Salinas Valley Psychiatric Program, 31625 Highway 101, P.O. Box 1080, Soledad, CA 93960, USA
2Department of Psychiatry, University of California, 401 Parnassus Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94143, USA
3San Francisco Veterans Affairs Medical Center, OTP Clinic, 4150 Clement Street, Building 1, Ground Floor, Room 24, San Francisco, CA 94121, USA

Correspondence should be addressed to Raj K. Kalapatapu; moc.liamg@k.jar.upatapalak

Received 15 December 2016; Accepted 11 January 2017; Published 29 January 2017

Academic Editor: Liliana Dell’Osso

Copyright © 2017 Joan M. Striebel et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. L. Craig and G. H. Loeffler, “The ketamine analog methoxetamine: a new designer drug to threaten military readiness,” Military Medicine, vol. 179, no. 10, pp. 1149–1157, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. S. Davies, D. M. Wood, G. Smith et al., “Purchasing ‘legal highs’ on the Internet—is there consistency in what you get?” QJM, vol. 103, no. 7, Article ID hcq056, pp. 489–493, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. J. Hillebrand, D. Olszewski, and R. Sedefov, “Legal highs on the Internet,” Substance Use and Misuse, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 330–340, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. B. T. Litz and W. E. Schlenger, “PTSD in service members and new veterans of the iraq and afghanistan wars: a bibliography and critique,” PTSD Research Quarterly, vol. 20, no. 1, pp. 1–3, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  5. K. H. Seal, G. Cohen, A. Waldrop, B. E. Cohen, S. Maguen, and L. Ren, “Substance use disorders in Iraq and Afghanistan veterans in VA healthcare, 2001-2010: implications for screening, diagnosis and treatment,” Drug and Alcohol Dependence, vol. 116, no. 1–3, pp. 93–101, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S. B. Norman, U. S. Myers, K. C. Wilkins et al., “Review of biological mechanisms and pharmacological treatments of comorbid PTSD and substance use disorder,” Neuropharmacology, vol. 62, no. 2, pp. 542–551, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. G. F. Koob and E. P. Zorrilla, “Neurobiological mechanisms of addiction: focus on corticotropin-releasing factor,” Current Opinion in Investigational Drugs, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 63–71, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. A. Bolaños and E. J. Nestler, “Neurotrophic mechanisms in drug addiction,” NeuroMolecular Medicine, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 69–83, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Dell'Osso, C. Carmassi, A. Del Debbio et al., “Brain-derived neurotrophic factor plasma levels in patients suffering from post-traumatic stress disorder,” Progress in Neuro-Psychopharmacology & Biological Psychiatry, vol. 33, no. 5, pp. 899–902, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. R. A. Nicoll and R. C. Malenka, “Expression mechanisms underlying NMDA receptor-dependent long-term potentiation,” Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, vol. 868, pp. 515–525, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. V. Caldeira, C. V. Melo, D. B. Pereira, R. F. Carvalho, A. L. Carvalho, and C. B. Duarte, “BDNF regulates the expression and traffic of NMDA receptors in cultured hippocampal neurons,” Molecular and Cellular Neuroscience, vol. 35, no. 2, pp. 208–219, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. J. H. Krystal, L. P. Karper, J. P. Seibyl et al., “Subanesthetic effects of the noncompetitive nmda antagonist, ketamine, in humans: psychotomimetic, perceptual, cognitive, and neuroendocrine responses,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 199–214, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. C. A. Zarate Jr., J. B. Singh, P. J. Carlson et al., “A randomized trial of an N-methyl-D-aspartate antagonist in treatment-resistant major depression,” Archives of General Psychiatry, vol. 63, no. 8, pp. 856–864, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. A. Feder, M. K. Parides, J. W. Murrough et al., “Efficacy of intravenous ketamine for treatment of chronic posttraumatic stress disorder: a randomized clinical trial,” JAMA Psychiatry, vol. 71, no. 6, pp. 681–688, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. Coppola and R. Mondola, “Methoxetamine: from drug of abuse to rapid-acting antidepressant,” Medical Hypotheses, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 504–507, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. L. Roth, S. Gibbons, W. Arunotayanun et al., “The ketamine analogue methoxetamine and 3- and 4-methoxy analogues of phencyclidine are high affinity and selective ligands for the glutamate NMDA receptor,” PLoS ONE, vol. 8, no. 3, Article ID e59334, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. C. A. Browne and I. Lucki, “Antidepressant effects of ketamine: mechanisms underlying fast-acting novel antidepressants,” Frontiers in Pharmacology, vol. 4, article no. 161, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. J. B. Zawilska, “Methoxetamine—a novel recreational drug with potent hallucinogenic properties,” Toxicology Letters, vol. 230, no. 3, pp. 402–407, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. E. Hofer, B. Grager, D. M. Müller et al., “Ketamine-like effects after recreational use of methoxetamine,” Annals of Emergency Medicine, vol. 60, no. 1, pp. 97–99, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Kjellgren and K. Jonsson, “Methoxetamine (MXE)—a phenomenological study of experiences induced by a “legal high” from the internet,” Journal of Psychoactive Drugs, vol. 45, no. 3, pp. 276–286, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. A. B. Newberg, “The neuroscientific study of spiritual practices,” Frontiers in Psychology, vol. 5, article 215, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. K. A. MacLean, M. W. Johnson, and R. R. Griffiths, “Mystical experiences occasioned by the hallucinogen psilocybin lead to increases in the personality domain of openness,” Journal of Psychopharmacology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1453–1461, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. D. E. Nichols, “Hallucinogens,” Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 101, no. 2, pp. 131–181, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus