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Case Reports in Psychiatry
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 3968751, 3 pages
Case Report

Misdiagnoses of Epilepsy as Ekbom Syndrome, Mood Instability, and Nocturnal Visual Hallucinations

Psychiatry Service, Hospital José Joaquim Fernandes, Beja, Portugal

Correspondence should be addressed to M. Duarte Mangas; moc.liamtoh@sagnam_anairam

Received 2 March 2017; Accepted 14 June 2017; Published 13 July 2017

Academic Editor: Michael Kluge

Copyright © 2017 M. Duarte Mangas et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Epileptic seizures may be misdiagnosed if they manifest as psychiatric symptoms. We report three female patients with no preexisting history of epilepsy that were unsuccessfully treated as primary psychiatric disorder: one patient was initially diagnosed with somatization and Ekbom syndrome; the second was referred to psychiatrist due to mood instability and visual hallucinations; and the third one was referred for anxiety and hallucinations related to sleep. A carefully taken medical history clarified diagnoses of epilepsy. None of the patients responded to medications aimed at treating psychiatric symptoms, and all the patients had favorable response to antiepileptic treatment. These cases illustrate that epileptic patients may experience nonconvulsive seizures that might be misdiagnosed as primary psychiatric disorder.