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Case Reports in Pulmonology
Volume 2013, Article ID 179587, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/179587
Case Report

Diffuse Alveolar Hemorrhage due to Acute Mitral Valve Regurgitation

1Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Department of Medicine, Tahlequah City Hospital, Tahlequah, OK 74464, USA
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Iowa Hospital, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA
3Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Montefiore Hospital, Albert Einstein College of Medicine, Yeshiva University, New York, NY 10467, USA
4Department of Pharmacy, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, 50 Fruit Street, Boston, MA 02114, USA
5Department of Internal Medicine, Massachusetts General Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Harvard University, Boston, MA 02114, USA

Received 26 September 2013; Accepted 14 November 2013

Academic Editors: L. Borderías, G. Hillerdal, and M. E. Wylam

Copyright © 2013 Creticus P. Marak et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Diffuse alveolar hemorrhage (DAH) can be caused by several etiologies including vasculitis, drug exposure, anticoagulants, infections, mitral valve stenosis, and regurgitation. Chronic mitral valve regurgitation (MR) has been well documented as an etiological factor for DAH, but there have been only a few cases which have reported acute mitral valve regurgitation as an etiology of DAH. Acute mitral valve regurgitation can be a life-threatening condition and often requires urgent intervention. In rare cases, acute mitral regurgitation may result in a regurgitant jet which is directed towards the right upper pulmonary vein and may specifically cause right-sided pulmonary edema and right-sided DAH. Surgical repair of the mitral valve results in rapid resolution of DAH. Acute MR should be considered as a possible etiology in patients presenting with unilateral pulmonary edema, hemoptysis, and DAH.