Case Reports in Pulmonology https://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. Rare Congenital Aberrant Left Superior Pulmonary Vein Discovered with Central Line Placement in a Patient with Critical Cardiorespiratory Collapse Wed, 13 Sep 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/8728904/ Background. Partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection is a rare congenital vascular disorder that may be asymptomatic. Left-sided connections with the innominate vein are discovered infrequently and those without an atrial septal defect are extremely rare. Case. A 66-year-old male was found to have an anomalous left pulmonary vein when a central venous catheter was inserted for management of hypoxemia. In addition to the connection with the left innominate vein an echocardiogram revealed no atrial septal defect. Computed tomography arteriography was used to define the anomaly. Conclusion. Left superior vein partial anomalous pulmonary venous connection with the left innominate vein was discovered incidentally on insertion of central venous catheter. The otherwise innocuous anomaly can become a significant variable when treating critical cardiopulmonary collapse. Spencer Knox, Mario Madruga, and S. J. Carlan Copyright © 2017 Spencer Knox et al. All rights reserved. Acute Low-Dose Hydralazine-Induced Lupus Pneumonitis Tue, 08 Aug 2017 06:32:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/2650142/ A 35-year-old female was started on hydralazine 10 mg orally three times a day for treatment of postpartum hypertension. Three months later, after multiple unsuccessful courses of prednisone and antibiotics for presumed pneumonia and asthma exacerbations, her respiratory symptoms progressed in severity and she developed resting hypoxia. Previous diagnostic work-up included spirometry with a restrictive pattern, chest CT showing bilateral basilar consolidation, negative BAL, and nonspecific findings on lung biopsy of mild inflammatory cells. Review of systems was positive for arthralgia, lymphadenopathy, paresthesia, and fatigue that began four weeks after starting hydralazine. A clinical diagnosis of hydralazine-induced lupus (HIL) with pneumonitis was made. Antihistone antibodies were positive supporting a diagnosis of HIL. Management included cessation of hydralazine and a prolonged steroid taper. Within days, patient began improving symptomatically. Six weeks later, CT chest showed complete resolution of infiltrates. Genetic testing revealed she was heterozygous for N-acetyltransferase 2 (intermediate acetylator). Drug-induced lupus should be considered in patients with lupus-like symptoms taking medications with a known association. While the majority of HIL cases occur with high doses and prolonged treatment, cases of low-dose HIL have been reported in patients who are slow acetylators. Sarah K. Holman, Donique Parris, Sarah Meyers, and Jason Ramirez Copyright © 2017 Sarah K. Holman et al. All rights reserved. Primary Pulmonary Lymphoma Presenting with Superior Vena Cava Syndrome in a Young Female Tue, 08 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/1937107/ Primary Pulmonary Diffuse Large B Cell Lymphoma (PPDLBCL) is an extremely rare entity, which exhibits an aggressive behavior by compressing local blood vessels. It represents only 0.04% of all lymphoma cases and is extremely rare in young age. We present a case of a primary pulmonary lymphoma with superior vena cava syndrome (SVCS) in a young female. 27-year-old African American female presented with fever, cough, and facial puffiness for 2 weeks and unintentional weight loss. Chest examination showed decreased breath sounds and dullness on percussion on right side. Labs were normal except for mild leukocytosis, high lactate, and lactate dehydrogenase. Chest X-ray showed a large right side infiltrate with pleural effusion but chest CT showed 10 × 14 × 16 cm mass in the right lung without hilar and mediastinal lymphadenopathy. CT guided biopsy of the right lung mass was done and large B cell lymphoma was diagnosed. She received “involved field radiation” because of the bulky tumor size and superior vena cava involvement prior to R-CHOP to which she responded well. PPDLBCL should be considered as one of the differentials in a young patient with a large lung mass, which needs timely diagnosis and management. Divya Salhan, Prakash Verma, Tun Win Naing, Ebad Ur Rehman, Saroj Kandel, Danillo Enriquez, Joseph Quist, and Frances Schmidt Copyright © 2017 Divya Salhan et al. All rights reserved. Arterial Thoracic Outlet Syndrome Treated Successfully with Totally Endoscopic First Rib Resection Sun, 06 Aug 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/9350735/ Thoracic outlet syndrome (TOS) is a constellation of signs and symptoms caused by compression of the neurovascular structures in the thoracic outlet. TOS may be classified as either neurogenic TOS (NTOS) or vascular TOS: venous TOS (VTOS) or arterial TOS (ATOS), depending on the specific structure being affected. The basis for the surgical treatment of TOS is resection of the first rib, and it may be combined with scalenectomy or cervical rib resection. Herein, we describe a case of arterial thoracic outlet syndrome which was successfully treated with totally endoscopic video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) first rib resection. Sofoklis Mitsos, Davide Patrini, Sara Velo, Achilleas Antonopoulos, Martin Hayward, Robert S. George, David Lawrence, and Nikolaos Panagiotopoulos Copyright © 2017 Sofoklis Mitsos et al. All rights reserved. Intercostal Artery Laceration: Rare Complication of Thoracentesis and Role of Ultrasound in Early Detection Wed, 02 Aug 2017 06:53:49 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/6491083/ Hemothorax is a rare but potentially fatal postthoracentesis complication. Early clinical signs may be nonspecific resulting in diagnostic delay. A high index of suspicion is vital for early diagnosis and intervention to avoid further bleeding. Following procedure, early bedside ultrasound findings can be vital for early detection. We report a case of massive hemothorax in a 63-year-old male following therapeutic thoracentesis. Diagnosis was made following highly suggestive sonographic findings prompting thoracotomy and lacerated intercostal artery cauterization. Wissam Mansour, Ghassan Samaha, Sandy El Bitar, Ziad Esper, and Rabih Maroun Copyright © 2017 Wissam Mansour et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Case of Aortoatrial Fistula from Streptococcal Endocarditis Wed, 05 Jul 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/8189658/ We represent an unfortunate case of postinfluenza streptococcal endocarditis in a 34-year-old healthy male. He presented with hypoxic respiratory failure and was found to have mitral and aortic valve vegetation. Hospital course was complicated by the presence of an aortoatrial fistula from an aortic root abscess, persistent septic shock, and multiorgan failure. Hammad Arshad, Meilin Young, and Parth Rali Copyright © 2017 Hammad Arshad et al. All rights reserved. An Unusual Presentation of Congenital Lobar Emphysema Mon, 24 Apr 2017 08:53:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/6719617/ Congenital lobar emphysema is an uncommon bronchopulmonary malformation characterized by lobar overinflation and accompanying alveolar septum damage that leads to compression atelectasis of the lung parenchyma and displacement of mediastinal structures, with the resultant ventilation-perfusion mismatch. We present a case of a 33-year-old lady with progressive exertional dyspnea. Chest radiograph findings lead to the suspicion of congenital lobar emphysema, which was then confirmed by a computed tomography (CT) scan. This condition is most commonly identified in newborns, with very few cases being reported in adults. Lobectomy remains the treatment of choice and in general has good outcome. Daniel Arnaud, Joseph Varon, and Salim Surani Copyright © 2017 Daniel Arnaud et al. All rights reserved. Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma Presenting with Immunodeficiency and Multiple Pulmonary Nodules Mon, 13 Mar 2017 06:57:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/4804378/ Bronchus Associated Lymphoid Tissue Lymphoma (BALTOMA) is a rare subgroup of pulmonary non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas (NHLs) comprising less than 1% of all cases. It constitutes 3.6% of all extranodal lymphomas and only 0.5–1% of primary pulmonary malignancies. They are usually low grade B-cell lymphomas and are considered to originate from the mucosa associated lymphoid tissue (MALT) of the bronchi. Here, we represent a rare case of BALTOMA presenting with immunodeficiency and multiple pulmonary nodules. Sermin Borekci, Murat Ozbalak, Ezel Ersen, Hilal Akı, Muhlis Cem Ar, and Sema Umut Copyright © 2017 Sermin Borekci et al. All rights reserved. Successful Extubation Using Heliox BiPAP in Two Patients with Postextubation Stridor Wed, 08 Mar 2017 07:03:26 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/1253280/ Postextubation stridor is associated with significant morbidity. It commonly results in extubation failure after established medical treatment fails, such as nebulized epinephrine and/or intravenous steroids. The role of heliox (i.e., combination of helium and oxygen) in managing patients with postextubation stridor has not been fully established. We report two cases of postextubation stridor successfully treated with heliox delivered with bilevel positive airway pressure (BiPAP) after failure of standard medical therapy. Pragya Punj, Premkumar Nattanmai, Pravin George, and Christopher R. Newey Copyright © 2017 Pragya Punj et al. All rights reserved. Nocardia brasiliensis Infection Complicating Cryptogenic Organizing Pneumonia Tue, 28 Feb 2017 09:44:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/9567175/ Pulmonary nocardiosis is a severe and uncommon opportunistic infection caused by Nocardia species. We present a patient with cryptogenic organizing pneumonia who was receiving long-term immunosuppressive therapy, whose treatment course was complicated by cutaneous and pulmonary nocardiosis. Tissue cultures confirmed Nocardia brasiliensis. Nocardiosis should be a diagnostic consideration for patients treated with long-term immunosuppression who have worsening pulmonary symptoms and relapsing pustular skin lesions. Alison M. Fernandes, Jason C. Sluzevich, and Isabel Mira-Avendano Copyright © 2017 Alison M. Fernandes et al. All rights reserved. A Rare Presentation of Sarcoidosis as a Pancreatic Head Mass Tue, 21 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/7037162/ Sarcoidosis is a multisystem granulomatous syndrome of unknown etiology with noncaseating epithelioid granulomas being the pathognomonic pathological finding. Sarcoidosis most commonly involves the lungs and involvement of the gastrointestinal (GI) tract is uncommon. Pancreatic sarcoidosis is very rare, especially when it is the presenting feature of sarcoidosis and can masquerade as pancreatic cancer. Tissue infiltration in pancreatic sarcoidosis can lead to either a diffuse nodular appearance or a mass-like lesion. We present an interesting case of a 47-year-old woman with a 10-pack-year history of smoking who presented with sharp epigastric pain, weight loss, and elevated lipase level. CT and MRI imaging showed a 4 cm × 5 cm heterogeneous pancreatic mass with a dilated pancreatic duct and peripancreatic lymphadenopathy. Endoscopic ultrasound guided FNA revealed noncaseating granulomas with no evidence of malignancy or atypical infection. CT of the chest revealed bilateral mediastinal and hilar adenopathy with calcification, without any parenchymal abnormalities, and her angiotensin-converting enzyme level was elevated at 170 U/L. The clinical picture pointed to the diagnosis of pancreatic sarcoidosis. Given the severity of gastrointestinal symptoms related to pancreatic sarcoidosis, prednisone therapy at 0.5 mg/kg/day was initiated with complete resolution of symptoms at 8 weeks. Shruti Mony, Pradnya D. Patil, Rebekah English, Ananya Das, Daniel A. Culver, and Tanmay S. Panchabhai Copyright © 2017 Shruti Mony et al. All rights reserved. Solitary Endobronchial Papilloma with Malignant Transformation and Concomitant TB Infection: Case Report and Literature Review Wed, 08 Feb 2017 00:00:00 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2017/1606432/ We are reporting a case of solitary endobronchial papilloma located in posterior segment of the left upper lobe of the lung with malignant transformation and negative human papilloma virus (HPV) strains in a 40-year-old Saudi nonsmoker man. The patient had a concomitant tuberculosis (TB) infection. The patient received appropriate treatment in the form of anti-TB medication and surgical resection of the squamous cell carcinoma followed by chemotherapy. There was no evidence of tumor recurrence, resulting in a complete cure. We are reporting the case as well as a literature review related to the topic. Mohammed Al Ghobain Copyright © 2017 Mohammed Al Ghobain. All rights reserved. Postpneumonectomy Compression of the Mitral Annulus: Rare Vascular Complication in Sportive Patient Mon, 26 Dec 2016 07:35:59 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/9575894/ Numerous postpneumonectomy complications exist. We present a rare clinical case of postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea revealing compression of the mitral annulus by the descending aorta. The patient was 42-year-old former smoker with pulmonary emphysema. He has been operated on, in 2012 (i.e., right pneumonectomy). Before the surgery, the patient was a recreational runner. However, after some months, it was difficult for the patient to resume running. Cardiopulmonary exercise testing indicated moderate exercise intolerance with important oxygen desaturation. More interestingly, a decrease of low oxygen pulse was noticed from the first ventilatory threshold with no electrical modification on the electrocardiogram. This decrease was indicative of a decline in stroke volume. The thoracic scan revealed a right pneumonectomy pocket with a liquid abnormal content. Moreover, the mediastinum had shifted toward the pneumonectomy space and the left lung was distended and emphysematous. Echocardiography revealed a major change in the mediastinal anatomy. The mitral annulus was observed to be compressed by the rear wall of the descending aorta. The diagnosis of postpneumonectomy syndrome or platypnea-orthodeoxia syndrome was ruled out in this patient. Mitral annular compression by the descending aorta is rare complication, which must be researched in patients with postpneumonectomy exertional dyspnea. David Debeaumont, Susana Bota, Jean-Marc Baste, Marie Bellefleur, Dimitri Stepowski, Florence Vincent, Tristan Bonnevie, Francis-Edouard Gravier, Marie Netchitailo, Catherine Tardif, Alain Boutry, Jean-François Muir, and Jérémy Coquart Copyright © 2016 David Debeaumont et al. All rights reserved. Extracorporeal Lung Support as a Bridge to Diagnosis of Pulmonary Tumor Embolism Wed, 14 Dec 2016 11:55:11 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/3257084/ Bridging to diagnosis is an emerging technique used in end-stage cardiorespiratory failure that prolongs a patient’s life using various modalities of extracorporeal lung support (ECLS) to achieve antemortem diagnosis. Pulmonary tumor embolism occurs when cell clusters travel from primary malignancies through venous circulation to the lungs, causing respiratory failure through inflammatory and venoocclusive pathways. Due to its nonspecific symptomatology, pulmonary tumor embolism remains an elusive diagnosis antemortem. Herein, we bridge a patient who presented in acute respiratory failure to the diagnosis of pulmonary tumor embolism from a gastric signet-ring cell carcinoma using ECLS modalities including venoarterial extracorporeal membrane oxygenation and centrally cannulated Novalung pumpless extracorporeal lung assist. We demonstrate the utility of this approach in diagnostically uncertain cases in unstable patients who are potentially acceptable ECLS and transplant candidates. Vishnu Vasanthan, Kieran Halloran, Lakshmi Puttagunta, and Jayan Nagendran Copyright © 2016 Vishnu Vasanthan et al. All rights reserved. Airway Complications from an Esophageal Foreign Body Mon, 12 Dec 2016 08:54:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/3403952/ Introduction. Foreign body impaction (FBI) in the esophagus can be a serious condition, which can have a high mortality among children and adults, if appropriate diagnosis and treatment are not instituted urgently. 80–90% of all foreign bodies trapped in the esophagus usually pass spontaneously through the digestive tract, without any medical or surgical intervention. 10–20% of them will need an endoscopic intervention. Case Report. We hereby present a case of a large chicken piece foreign body impaction in the esophagus in a 25-year-old male with mental retardation. Patient developed hypoxemic respiratory failure requiring intubation. The removal required endoscopic intervention. Conclusions. Foreign bodies trapped in the upper gastrointestinal tract are a serious condition that can be fatal if they are not managed correctly. A correct diagnosis and treatment decrease the chances of complications. Endoscopic treatment remains the gold standard for extracting foreign body impaction. Ismael Garcia, Joseph Varon, and Salim Surani Copyright © 2016 Ismael Garcia et al. All rights reserved. Primary Pulmonary Meningioma Simulating a Pulmonary Metastasis Wed, 16 Nov 2016 08:43:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/8248749/ Primary pulmonary meningiomas represent a rare tumor entity. Few cases have been reported in the English medical literature, and they have almost all been solitary and benign in nature, with the exception of several extremely rare cases. We report herein a case of PPM that raised suspicion of a pulmonary metastatic tumor initially, as it was depicted as a single, round, small, ground-glass opacity pulmonary nodule on a chest computed tomography scan, in a 55-year-old man with a history of buccal cancer. Increased awareness of the clinical and radiologic characteristics of this rare category can assist a multidisciplinary team to perform adequate management. Chun-Mao Juan, Mei-Ling Chen, Shang-Yun Ho, and Yuan-Chun Huang Copyright © 2016 Chun-Mao Juan et al. All rights reserved. Teppanyaki/Hibachi Pneumonitis: An Exotic Cause of Exogenous Lipoid Pneumonia Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:58:42 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/1035601/ Exogenous lipoid pneumonia (ELP) is a rare type of inflammatory lung disease caused by aspiration and/or inhalation of fatty substances and characterized by a chronic foreign body-type reaction to intra-alveolar lipid deposits. The usual clinical presentation occurs with insidious onset of nonspecific respiratory symptoms and radiographic findings that can mimic other pulmonary diseases. Diagnosis of ELP is often missed or delayed as it requires a high index of suspicion and familiarity with the constellation of appropriate history and radiologic and pathologic features. We herein report a case of occupational exposure to tabletop “Teppanyaki” entertainment cooking as a cause of ELP, confirmed by surgical lung biopsies in a 63-year-old Asian woman who worked as a Hibachi-Teppanyaki chef for 25 years. Franck Rahaghi, Ali Varasteh, Roya Memarpour, and Basheer Tashtoush Copyright © 2016 Franck Rahaghi et al. All rights reserved. Streptococcus intermedius Causing Necrotizing Pneumonia in an Immune Competent Female: A Case Report and Literature Review Sun, 06 Nov 2016 13:32:23 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/7452161/ We report a case of a 52-year-old immunocompetent Caucasian female treated for necrotizing Streptococcus intermedius pneumonia and review available literature of similar cases. Our patient presented with respiratory failure and required hospitalization and treatment in the intensive care unit. Moreover, she required surgical drainage of right lung empyema as well as decortication and resection. The review of literature revealed three cases of S. intermedius pneumonia, one of which was a mortality. Comparison of the published cases showed a highly varied prehospital course and radiological presentations, with a symptomatic phase ranging from 10 days to five months. Radiological findings varied from an isolated pleural effusion to systemic disease with the presence of brain abscesses. Immunocompetence appears to correlate well with the overall prognosis. In addition, smoking appears to be an important risk factor for S. intermedius pneumonia. In 2 (50%) of cases, pleural fluid analysis identified S. intermedius. In contrast, no organism was found in our patient, necessitating the acquisition of lung tissue sample for the diagnosis. In conclusion, both medical and surgical management are necessary for effective treatment of S. intermedius pneumonia. The outcome of treatment is good in immunocompetent individuals. Faris Hannoodi, Israa Ali, Hussam Sabbagh, and Sarwan Kumar Copyright © 2016 Faris Hannoodi et al. All rights reserved. Right Lung Agenesis with Tracheal Stenosis due to Complete Tracheal Rings and Postpneumonectomy Like Syndrome Treated with Tissue Expander Placement Tue, 01 Nov 2016 09:06:04 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/4397641/ Congenital lung agenesis is an extremely rare condition with an estimated prevalence of 34 in 1,000,000 live births. It is often associated with other congenital malformations of the skeletal, cardiovascular, urogenital, and gastrointestinal systems. We discuss the case of a 5-month-old who presented with increasing stridor over 1 month. Imaging revealed right lung agenesis, complete dextromalposition of heart, and compression of distal trachea. An intrathoracic saline tissue expander was placed which marked improved distal tracheal stenosis. In patients who are symptomatic it becomes imperative to perform surgeries to increase survival as was the case in this patient. Yashwant Agrawal, Sandeep Patri, and Jagadeesh K. Kalavakunta Copyright © 2016 Yashwant Agrawal et al. All rights reserved. Biphasic Malignant Pleural Mesothelioma Masquerading as a Primary Skeletal Tumor Wed, 31 Aug 2016 10:52:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/7560929/ Biphasic malignant pleural mesothelioma is a rare malignant tumor, usually presenting as a pleural-based mass in a patient with history of chronic asbestos exposure. We herein report a case of a 41-year-old man who presented with chest pain and had a chest computed tomography (CT) scan suggestive of a primary skeletal tumor originating from the ribs (chondrosarcoma or osteosarcoma), with no history of asbestos exposure. CT-guided core needle biopsies were diagnosed as malignant sarcomatoid mesothelioma. Surgical resection and chest wall reconstruction were performed, confirming the diagnosis and revealing a secondary histologic component (epithelioid), supporting the diagnosis of biphasic malignant mesothelioma. James Benjamin Gleason, Basheer Tashtoush, and Maria Julia Diacovo Copyright © 2016 James Benjamin Gleason et al. All rights reserved. Systemic Air Embolism Associated with Pleural Pigtail Chest Tube Insertion Wed, 17 Aug 2016 13:12:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/4053748/ Pleural pigtail catheter placement is associated with many complications including pneumothorax, hemorrhage, and chest pain. Air embolism is a known but rare complication of pleural pigtail catheter insertion and has a high risk of occurrence with positive pressure ventilation. In this case report, we present a 50-year-old male with bilateral pneumonia who developed a pneumothorax while on mechanical ventilation with continuous positive airway pressure mode. During the placement of the pleural pigtail catheter to correct the pneumothorax, the patient developed a sudden left sided body weakness and became unresponsive. An air embolism was identified in the right main cerebral artery, which was fatal. Emad Alkhankan, Ahmad Nusair, Rida Mazagri, and Mohammed Al-Ourani Copyright © 2016 Emad Alkhankan et al. All rights reserved. Postpartum Tuberculosis: A Diagnostic and Therapeutic Challenge Tue, 16 Aug 2016 06:28:09 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/3793941/ Tuberculosis (TB) infection in pregnant women and newborn babies is always challenging. Appropriate treatment is pivotal to curtail morbidity and mortality. TB diagnosis or exposure to active TB can be emotionally distressing to the mother. Circumstances can become more challenging for the physician if the mother’s TB status is unclear. Effective management of TB during pregnancy and the postpartum period requires a multidisciplinary approach including pulmonologist, obstetrician, neonatologist, infectious disease specialist, and TB public health department. Current guidelines recommend primary Isoniazid prophylaxis in TB exposed pregnant women who are immune-suppressed and have chronic medical conditions or obstetric risk factors and close and sustained contact with a patient with infectious TB. Treatment during pregnancy is the same as for the general adult population. Infants born to mothers with active TB at delivery should undergo a complete diagnostic evaluation. Primary Isoniazid prophylaxis for at least twelve weeks is recommended for those with negative diagnostic tests and no evidence of disease. Repeated negative diagnostic tests are mandatory before interrupting prophylaxis. Separation of mother and infant is only necessary when the mother has received treatment for less than 2 weeks, is sputum smear-positive, or has drug-resistant TB. This case highlights important aspects for management of TB during the postpartum period which has a higher morbidity. We present a case of a young mother migrating from a developing nation to the USA, who was found to have a positive quantiFERON test associated with multiple cavitary lung lesions and gave birth to a healthy baby. Vijay Kodadhala, Alemeshet Gudeta, Aklilu Zerihun, Odene Lewis, Sohail Ahmed, Jhansi Gajjala, and Alicia Thomas Copyright © 2016 Vijay Kodadhala et al. All rights reserved. Subcutaneous and Pulmonary Dirofilariasis with Evidence of Splenic Involvement Mon, 08 Aug 2016 16:31:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/8212387/ Cases of human dirofilariasis have been reported in several countries around the world, including a large number in the Atlantic and Gulf Coast regions of the United States. Most commonly, these cases have subcutaneous or pulmonary involvement; however, there have been few reports of dirofilariasis involving structures such as large vessels, mesentery, the spermatic cord, and liver. We present a case of an unusual presentation of human dirofilariasis presenting as a shoulder abscess and what is presumed to be pulmonary and splenic involvement in a 55-year-old female. Adarsha Selvachandran and Raymond J. Foley Copyright © 2016 Adarsha Selvachandran and Raymond J. Foley. All rights reserved. Endobronchial Cartilage Rupture: A Rare Cause of Lobar Collapse Mon, 25 Jul 2016 09:20:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/8178129/ Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare clinical condition, which can present in patients with severe emphysema with sudden onset shortness of breath. We present a case of a 62-year-old male who presented to our emergency department with sudden onset shortness of breath. Chest X-ray showed lung hyperinflation and a right lung field vague small density. Chest Computed Tomography confirmed the presence of right middle lobe collapse. Bronchoscopy revealed partial right middle lobe atelectasis and an endobronchial cartilage rupture. Endobronchial cartilage rupture is a rare condition that can present as sudden onset shortness of breath due to lobar collapse in patients with emphysema and can be triggered by cough. Bronchoscopic findings include finding a collapsed lung lobe and a visible ruptured endobronchial cartilage. A high index of suspicion, chest imaging, and early bronchoscopy can aid in the diagnosis and help prevent complications. Osama Dasa, Nauman Siddiqui, Mohammed Ruzieh, and Toseef Javaid Copyright © 2016 Osama Dasa et al. All rights reserved. Erratum to “Endobronchial Enigma: A Clinically Rare Presentation of Nocardia beijingensis in an Immunocompetent Patient” Sun, 17 Jul 2016 09:20:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/1950463/ Nader Abdel-Rahman, Shimon Izhakian, Walter G. Wasser, Oren Fruchter, and Mordechai R. Kramer Copyright © 2016 Nader Abdel-Rahman et al. All rights reserved. Primary Pulmonary Amebiasis Complicated with Multicystic Empyema Sun, 10 Jul 2016 07:48:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/8709347/ Amebiasis is a parasitic infection caused by the protozoan Entamoeba histolytica. While most infections are asymptomatic, the disease could manifest clinically as amebic dysentery and/or extraintestinal invasion in the form of amebic liver abscess or other more rare manifestations such as pulmonary, cardiac, or brain involvement. Herein we are reporting a case of a 24-year-old male with history of Down syndrome who presented with severe right side pneumonia complicated with multicystic empyema resistant to regular medical therapy. Further investigation revealed a positive pleural fluid for E. histolytica cysts and trophozoites. The patient was diagnosed with primary pleuropulmonary amebiasis and he responded promptly to surgical drainage and metronidazole therapy. In patients from endemic areas all physicians should keep a high index of suspicion of amebiasis as a cause of pulmonary disease. Ali Zakaria, Bayan Al-Share, and Khaled Al Asad Copyright © 2016 Ali Zakaria et al. All rights reserved. A Case of Tuberculous Meningitis with Tuberculoma in Nonimmunocompromised Immigrant Mon, 20 Jun 2016 12:40:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/9016142/ We present a case of tuberculous (TB) meningitis in nonimmunocompromised immigrant worker who initially presented with headache and later with generalized tonic clonic seizures and disseminated tuberculosis. Parth Rali, Hammad Arshad, and Eric Bihler Copyright © 2016 Parth Rali et al. All rights reserved. An Unusual Association in an Uncommon Disease: Two Cases of Spontaneous Pneumomediastinum Associated with Pneumorrhachis Tue, 26 Apr 2016 12:50:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/5092157/ Pneumomediastinum, the presence of free air in the mediastinum, is described as spontaneous pneumomediastinum when there is no apparent cause such as trauma, surgery, interventional procedures, or intrathoracic infections. Pneumorrhachis is a rare clinical condition, consisting of intraspinal air. The main causes are iatrogenic, traumatic, and nontraumatic. Spontaneous mediastinum is usually associated with subcutaneous emphysema and, occasionally, with pneumothorax; however, its association with pneumorrhachis is extremely rare. Here, we present two rare cases of spontaneous pneumomediastinum associated with pneumorrhachis caused by vigorous coughing. Luís Martins, Patrícia Dionísio, Susana Moreira, Alda Manique, Isabel Correia, and Cristina Bárbara Copyright © 2016 Luís Martins et al. All rights reserved. Severe Acute Pulmonary Toxicity Associated with Brentuximab in a Patient with Refractory Hodgkin’s Lymphoma Sun, 17 Apr 2016 14:13:58 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/2359437/ Acute pulmonary toxicity associated with brentuximab appears to be a rare but serious adverse effect that can be potentially fatal. We report the case of a twenty-nine-year-old female with Hodgkin’s lymphoma who was treated with brentuximab and later presented with severe acute pulmonary toxicity; she improved after the discontinuation of brentuximab and administration of antibiotics and glucocorticoid therapy. Currently there is very little data in the literature in regard to the clinical manifestations and characteristics of patients taking brentuximab and the potential development of acute severe pulmonary toxicity, as well as the appropriate therapeutic approach, making this particular case of successful treatment and resolution unique. Yasmin Sabet, Saul Ramirez, Elizabeth Rosell Cespedes, Marimer Rensoli Velasquez, Mateo Porres-Muñoz, Sumit Gaur, Juan B. Figueroa-Casas, and Mateo Porres-Aguilar Copyright © 2016 Yasmin Sabet et al. All rights reserved. Mediastinal Mature Teratoma Revealed by Empyema Thu, 07 Apr 2016 06:35:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/cripu/2016/7869476/ Teratomas are germ cell tumors, manifested with a great variety of clinical features; the most common extragonadal site is the anterior mediastinum. In this case, we report the patient with a large mature mediastinal teratoma with several components of ectodermal and endothermal epithelium. A 24-year-old female patient presented with history of persistent chest pain and progressively aggravating dyspnea for the previous 3 months. A chest X-ray showed a large opacity of the entire left hemithorax. Transcutaneous needle aspiration revealed a purulent fluid. The tube thoracostomy was introduced and the effusion was evacuated. Some weeks later, patient was seen in emergency for persistent cough and lateral chest pain. CT scan revealed a mass of the left hemithorax. The mass showed heterogeneous density, without compressing mediastinum great vessels and left hilar structures. Lipase value was elevated in needle aspiration. The patient underwent a total resection of the mediastinum mass via a left posterolateral thoracotomy. Microscopy revealed a mature teratoma with cystic structures. The patient subsequently made a full recovery. This case provide benign mediastinal teratoma with total atelectasis of left lung and elevated lipase value in needle transcutaneous aspiration; this event is explained by pancreatic component in the cystic tumor. Total removal of the tumor is adequate treatment for this type of teratoma and the prognosis is excellent. Mohammed Raoufi, Laila Herrak, Anas Benali, Leila Achaachi, Mustapha El Ftouh, Salma Bellarbi, Charaf Tilfine, and Firdaous Taouarsa Copyright © 2016 Mohammed Raoufi et al. All rights reserved.