Parvovirus B19 Infection due to over Immunosuppression in Kidney Transplant Recipients: Case Reports and Literature ReviewRead the full article
Case Reports in Transplantation publishes case reports and case series focusing on novel techniques as well as associated side effects and complications of heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas and stem cell transplantation.
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Challenges of Diagnosing Severe Ehrlichiosis in Orthotopic Liver Transplant Recipients
In recent solid organ transplant recipients, acute febrile illness is usually a source of grave concern and a diagnostic dilemma, especially if no response is noted after initiation of broad antimicrobial therapy. Human Monocytic Ehrlichiosis (HME) is a tick-borne illness caused by Ehrlichia chaffeensis and is not considered an opportunistic infection in immunocompromised patients such as solid organ transplant patients. Ehrlichiosis in immunocompromised patients can be life-threatening, and a strong index of suspicion is needed, especially in patients who live in endemic areas, for proper treatment initiation with doxycycline. We report a case of a 40-year-old male who received an orthotopic liver transplant six months earlier secondary to primary sclerosing cholangitis, on chronic immunosuppressive medication, who presented with complaints of sudden onset fever associated with nausea, vomiting, and diarrhea. Initial extensive infectious workup was negative and no response to empiric antimicrobials. There was suspicion for ehrlichiosis prompting empiric doxycycline use. Subsequently, E. chaffeensis polymerase chain reaction (PCR) was positive, and the antibiotic regimen was de-escalated to only doxycycline with complete resolution of his symptoms and progressive improvement in previously abnormal biochemical indices.
Primary Hyperaldosteronism: A Rare Cause of Malignant Hypertension with Thrombotic Microangiopathy in a Kidney Transplant Recipient
Thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) is a rare disease that presents with haemolysis and organ damage. The kidney is one of the main affected organs, and TMA is associated with serious complications and increased mortality. In transplanted patients, TMA is even less common and has a variety of possible causes, including thrombotic thrombocytopenic purpura (TTP) and haemolytic-uremic syndrome (HUS), infections, drugs, autoimmune disease, tumours, and malignant hypertension. Transplant-related causes, such as antibody-mediated rejection, calcineurin inhibitors, and viral infections, need to be considered as well. The authors report a rare case of TMA in a kidney transplant recipient, whose investigation revealed malignant hypertension secondary to primary hyperaldosteronism.
Immune Thrombocytopenia Associated with Hepatitis B Virus and Autoimmune Hepatitis and Recovery of Platelet Count following Liver Transplantation
Immune thrombocytopenia is a consumptive coagulopathy that can be either idiopathic or associated with infectious or autoimmune etiologies. Here, we present a case of immune thrombocytopenia in the setting of acute liver failure due to coexisting diagnoses of hepatitis B virus and autoimmune hepatitis. Our patient underwent orthotopic liver transplantation and recovered hemostatic platelet counts after treatment with romiplostim, a thrombopoietin receptor agonist, 51 days after transplantation. To our knowledge, this is the first case report of immune thrombocytopenia secondary to both hepatitis B virus and autoimmune hepatitis in a patient with acute liver failure.
Emerging of Fatal Colitis with Multidrug-Resistant Candida glabrata after Small Bowel Transplantation
Background. Small bowel transplantation is a potential option for patients with intestinal-failure, and the incidences of infections caused by Candida species that are more resistant to antifungal drugs are increasing in these patients. In this manuscript, we reported a case of fatal colitis after small bowel transplantation induces by multidrug-resistant (MDR) Candida glabrata. Case Presentation. A 52-year-old man has undergone an extensive small bowel resection with the length of the remaining bowel which was less than 40 cm who became a candidate for transplantation. Four months after transplantation, the patient experienced severe bloody diarrhea with abdominal distension. Ileoscopy and colonoscopy did not show neither pathological change and rejection nor cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection posttransplantation. Abdomen computed tomography showed diffuse moderate small bowel wall thickening. After detection of budding yeast in the stool samples, stool culture was positive for Candida, DNA was extracted, and ITS1-5.8s-ITS2 region of the fungal agent was amplified. Sequencing analysis of PCR and antifungal susceptibility testing revealed that this isolate was multidrug-resistant C. glabrata. Besides, there was no evidence for other pathogens known to cause infection in various laboratory tests. Immediate antifungal treatments with caspofungin remained unsuccessful, and on the eighteenth day of admission, the patient expires with septic shock. Conclusion. These findings highlight the challenging management of candidiasis in patients with small bowel transplantation. Infectious diseases due to MDR organisms have emerged as a vital clinical problem in this patient population.
Renal Transplantation from a Deceased Donor with Polycystic Kidney Disease
Renal transplantation is the gold standard treatment for patients with end-stage renal disease (ESRD) as it demonstrates improved long-term survival compared to patients who remain on renal replacement therapy. The widening gap between the demand and supply of organs warrants the expansion of donor criteria for renal transplantation. Kidneys with multiple cysts are often rejected for transplantation. Here, we present our recent experience of a 72-year-old patient with ESRD due to a biopsy-proven diabetic nephropathy who received a deceased donor kidney with adult polycystic kidney disease (APKD). At 31-month posttransplant, he had a serum creatinine of 1.6 mg/dL. Deceased donors affected by APKD should be considered an acceptable option for successful renal transplantation in select recipients, as well as an alternative kidney source to increase the donor pool.
Successful Use of Kidneys from a Deceased Donor with Active Herpes Zoster Infection
Background. The limited donor pool and increasing recipient wait list require a reevaluation of kidney organ suitability for transplantation. Use of higher infectious risk organs that were previously discarded may help improve access to transplantation and reduce patient mortality without placing patients at a higher risk of poor posttransplant outcomes. There is very little data available regarding the safe use of kidney organs from deceased donors with varicella zoster virus infection at the time of organ retrieval. Case Presentation. Here, we report a case of successful transplantation of both kidneys from a deceased donor with active herpes zoster infection at the time of organ retrieval. Recipients were treated preemptively with acyclovir. At 4 months posttransplant, both kidney recipients experienced no infectious complications and were off dialysis with functioning transplant grafts. Conclusions. The use of kidney organs from donors with active herpes zoster infection appears to be a safe option to expand the kidney donor pool.