Case Reports in Transplantation
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Parvovirus Infection-Related Anemia after Kidney Transplantation

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Case Reports in Transplantation publishes case reports and case series focusing on novel techniques as well as associated side effects and complications of heart, lung, kidney, liver, pancreas and stem cell transplantation.

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Case Reports in Transplantation maintains an Editorial Board of practicing researchers from around the world, to ensure manuscripts are handled by editors who are experts in the field of study.

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Case Report

Parvovirus Infection-Related Anemia after Kidney Transplantation

Anemia postkidney transplantation is an important issue which has been correlated with increased hospitalizations and higher mortality. Infections, including those due to parvovirus B19, CMV, and BK virus (polyomavirus), have also been associated with an increased risk of anemia. Here, we present a case of new-onset anemia in a kidney transplant recipient within 3 months of transplant. The patient was found to have multiple viral infections from parvo B19, BK virus, and rhinovirus. The anemia resolved completely after successful reduction in the parvo B19 and BK viral load. Workup for viral infections must be considered in the differential diagnosis of postkidney transplant anemia.

Case Report

Salvage after Retroperitoneal Kidney Allograft Torsion

Torsion of a transplanted kidney into the retroperitoneal space is a rare occurrence, with only three other reported cases. Failure after kidney transplantation is caused by surgical, immunological, and infective complications. Torsion is a complication that poses a serious risk of ischemic graft failure, and, if suspected, sonographic evaluation helps ascertain the diagnosis. Here, we present the case of a 69-year-old transplant recipient whose routine postoperative ultrasound confirmed vessel patency, however subsequently developed clinical signs of renal allograft compromise. Repeat ultrasound showed signs of vascular compromise and the patient was emergently re-explored. Torsion of the renal allograft about its pedicle was encountered and corrected by manual detorsion and nephropexy to the retroperitoneal wall. Clinicians should recognize pedicle torsion as a potential cause of renal allograft failure and the role of nephropexy in its management.

Case Series

Hepatic Artery Pseudoaneurysm in the Liver Transplant Recipient: A Case Series

Introduction. Hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm is a rare and potentially fatal complication of liver transplantation with a reported incidence of 0.3–2.6% and associated mortality approaching 75%. Clinical presentation typically includes sudden hypotension, gastrointestinal bleed or abnormal liver function tests within two months of transplantation. We report a series of four cases of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in adult liver transplant recipients with the goal of identifying factors that may aid in early diagnosis, prior to the development of life threatening complications. Methods. A retrospective chart review at a high volume transplant center revealed 4 cases of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm among 553 liver transplants (Incidence 0.72%) between March 2013 and March 2017. Results. Two of the four patients died immediately after intervention, one patient survived an additional 151 days prior to death from an unrelated condition and one patient survived at two years follow up. All cases utilized multiple imaging modalities that failed to identify the pseudoaneurysm prior to diagnosis with computed tomography angiography (CTA). Two cases had culture proven preoperative intrabdominal infections, while the remaining two cases manifested a perioperative course highly suspicious for infection (retransplant for hepatic necrosis after hepatic artery thrombosis and infected appearing vessel at reoperation, respectively). Three of the four cases either had a delayed biliary anastomosis or development of a bile leak, leading to contamination of the abdomen with bile. Additionally, three of the four cases demonstrated at least one episode of hypotension with acute anemia at least 5 days prior to diagnosis of the hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm. Conclusions. Recognition of several clinical features may increase the early identification of hepatic artery pseudoaneurysm in liver transplant recipients. These include culture proven intrabdominal infection or high clinical suspicion for infection, complicated surgical course resulting either in delayed performance of biliary anastomosis or a biliary leak, and an episode of hypotension with acute anemia. In combination, the presence of these characteristics can lead the clinician to investigate with appropriate imaging prior to the onset of life threatening complications requiring emergent intervention. This may lead to increased survival in patients with this life threatening complication.

Case Report

Severely Disseminated Kaposi Sarcoma after ABO-Incompatible Kidney Transplantation Treated Successfully with Paclitaxel and Gemcitabine Combined with Hemodialysis

Kaposi Sarcoma (KS) is driven by human herpes virus 8 causing vascular proliferation which is induced by loss of immune function most often due to HIV or immunosuppressants. KS occurs with increased incidence in kidney transplant recipients, but rarely is disseminated. We report a 64-year-old male who developed severely disseminated KS 5 months after ABO-incompatible kidney-transplantation. No guidelines for chemotherapy exist in this case and reduced kidney function and impaired immune system complicates the use of systemic chemotherapy in kidney transplant recipients. A combination of paclitaxel and gemcitabine followed by two days of hemodialysis treatment was chosen since paclitaxel can be given in full dose independently of kidney function and gemcitabine is metabolised to 2′,2′-difluorodeoxyuridine which is found to be highly dialysable. The present treatment was well tolerated by the patient with one episode of leukopenia and elevated alanine transaminase during treatment which resolved. There were no serious adverse events and the patient obtained a complete remission verified by Positron Emission Tomography CT after ending chemotherapy and at one-year follow up.

Case Report

Wide Excision of a Retroperitoneal Liposarcoma with En Bloc Ureterectomy and Renal Salvage by Autotransplantation

Liposarcoma is a malignant mesenchymal neoplasm composed of adipose tissue with varying degrees of atypia. These tumors grow slowly and may reach an enormous size particularly if located in the retroperitoneum. We report a 40-year-old male with a 6-month history of gradual abdominal enlargement. Computed tomography (CT) of the abdomen showed a huge retroperitoneal mass with characteristic features consistent with liposarcoma. On laparotomy, the mass was noted to be encasing the right ureter for which a wide excision with en bloc ureterectomy and subsequent renal autotransplantation for organ preservation was done. Post-operative course was uneventful with excellent outcome after 6 months of follow-up. Final histopathologic diagnosis was low-grade, well differentiated liposarcoma, which has favorable prognosis following radical surgery. This was the first report of such a case in the Philippines.

Case Report

Surgical Site Infections Complicating the Use of Negative Pressure Wound Therapy in Renal Transplant Recipients

Surgical site infections (SSI) of the abdominal wall in renal transplant recipients can on occasion require management with negative pressure wound therapy (NPWT). This is often successful, with a low risk of further complications. However, we describe three cases in which persistent or recurrent surgical site sepsis occurred, whilst NPWT was being deployed in adults with either wound dehiscence or initial SSI. This type of complication in the setting of NPWT has not been previously described in renal transplant recipients. Our case series demonstrates that in immunosuppressed transplant recipients, there may be ineffective microbial or bacterial bioburden clearance associated with the NPWT, which can lead to further infections. Hence recognition for infections in renal transplant patients undergoing treatment with NPWT is vital; furthermore, aggressive management of sepsis control with early debridement, antimicrobial use, and reassessment of the use of wound dressing is necessary to reduce the morbidity associated with surgical site infections and NPWT.

Case Reports in Transplantation
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