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Case Reports in Urology
Volume 2013, Article ID 356819, 5 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/356819
Case Report

Renal Cell Carcinoma Initially Presenting as an Arteriovenous Malformation: A Case Presentation and a Review of the Literature

1Department of Medical Education, Tufts University School of Medicine, 145 Harrison Avenue, Boston, MA 02111, USA
2Department of Urology, Beth Israel Deaconess Medical Center, Boston, MA 02215, USA
3Department of Radiology, Section of Vascular and Interventional Radiology, Maine Medical Center, Portland, ME 04102, USA

Received 18 August 2013; Accepted 8 September 2013

Academic Editors: A. Goel, S. K. Hong, and J. Park

Copyright © 2013 Samuel Volin et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

We describe a case of a patient who presented with hematuria and was diagnosed with a renal arteriovenous malformation (AVM). Transcatheter arterial embolization subsequently was performed on this lesion multiple times. Follow-up imaging demonstrated that the AVM was masking an underlying, rapidly growing renal cell carcinoma (RCC). We describe the pathological and radiographic characteristics of AVMs and RCC. We describe the strengths and weaknesses of computed tomography (CT) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) to detect and characterize RCC and AVM. We recommend initial and follow-up MR imaging in patients with an AVM to establish a baseline, monitor treatment response, and survey lesions for underlying and obscured malignancy.