Case Reports in Vascular Medicine / 2020 / Article / Tab 1

Case Report

Angioembolization of Scrotal Arteriovenous Malformations: A Case Report and Literature Review

Table 1

Published cases till 1/1/2019.

PresentationThrill/ bruitSperm analysisInvestigationManagementFollow-up

Bezirdjian et al.
(1989) [5]
24Painless enlarging right scrotal mass+Not doneUS. ArteriogramAngioembolization (polyvinyl alcohol sponge (Ivalon)). Surgical debridementNot mentioned
Hamid et al. (1992) [6]55Right scrotal swelling, pain with ulceration and bleeding+AzoospermiaLow s.testosterone, DUS, DSAAngioembolization then surgeryNot commented
Sule et al.
(1993) [4]
17Intermittently bleeding pulsatile left scrotal mass+DSAAngioembolization (gelatin sponge and coils) failed. Complete surgical resection was doneNo recurrence at 2 years of follow-up
Konus et al.
(1999) [7]
8Progressively enlarging, intermittently bleeding, painful pulsatile scrotal mass+Not doneDUS, DSAAngioembolization (polyvinyl alcohol sponge). Surgical excision1 year later. No residual disease on follow-up Doppler
Kang et al.
(2004) [8]
20Acute scrotal swelling detected 4 days after a traumaNot doneDUSSurgical excision. Biopsy showed AVMNot mentioned
Gonzalez et al.
(2002) [9]
31Left scrotal swelling with virtual azoospermia.Not mentionedAzoospermiaDUS, DSABilateral varicocelectomy. Super selective angioembolization followed by surgical excision3 months of follow-up, sperm analyses improved
Bandi et al.
(2004) [10]
67Recurrent scrotal AVM-bleeding nonhealing ulcer 12 years after preoperative embolization and hemiscrotectomyNot mentionedNot doneNot done at second presentationSurgical excision.Not mentioned
Choi et al.
(2005) [11]
The article was inaccessible
Monoski et al.
(2006) [12]
31Primary infertility and left scrotal fullnessSevere oligospermiaDSA hypertrophied internal pudendal and branch of superficial femoral a.Bilateral varicocelectomy. Angioembolization. Surgical excisionSperm count improved. 3 years later, successful spontaneous pregnancy
Yilmaz et al.
(2009) [13]
51Pain and throbbing sensation in right hemiscrotumPulsatile vessels +Not doneScrotal ultrasound. Confirmed at DUSNot mentionedNot mentioned
Jaganathan et al.
(2011) [14]
2 cases both presented with scrotal swelling and bleedingNot mentionedNot doneDUS, DSA
Emergency DUS, DSA
Selective angioembolization (poly vinyl alcohol). Parents refused surgery.
Angioembolization (n-butyl cyanoacrylate mixed with lipodol)
13 months of follow-up, asymptomatic.
18 months of follow-up, no recurrence
Zachariah et al.
(2012) [15]
30Progressive swelling. One episode of acute pain before 4 mo.Not doneDUS, MRIAngioembolization was rejected. Surgical excision.Not mentioned
Key R. et al.
(2013) [16]
41Massive bleeding after a hip fracture due to trauma. With large right retro peritoneal hematomaDUS, DSASeveral sessions of angioembolization (micro coils/emposphere’s/gel foam particles/onyx18 weeks later, no symptoms
Sato et al.
(2013) [17]
38Recurrent scrotal massCTA, biopsy (micro-AV fistula—AVM)Surgical excision10 months later, no recurrence
So WL et al.
(2014) [3]
26Scrotal pain and swellingNot mentionedDUS (AVM). DSACoil embolization. Subcutaneous sclerosant (sodium tetradecyl sulfate 3% with ethiodised oil (2 : 1 ratio)3 months of review, no recurrence
Muslim et al.
(2014) [18]
16Right scrotal swelling associated with mild painNot mentionedNot mentionedDUSRefused embolization. Surgical excision with dissecting the spermatic cord through an inguinal incision to protect itOne-year follow-up, no recurrence
Our case19Left scrotum swelling+Not performedDUS, MCT, DSAThree sessions of embolization, resection of scrotal lesionOne-year follow-up, no recurrence

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