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Congenital Limb Deformities in a Neonatal Crossbred Pig
Purpose. To describe the pathology and imaging findings in two neonatal piglets with congenital limb deformities. Methods. The litter from a second parity crossbred sow presented with four mummified fetuses, three stillborn piglets, and two live piglets with notable limb deformities that were unable to effectively ambulate. The piglets were euthanized and submitted for gross and histological evaluation. Results. Both pigs had bilateral secondary cleft palates, with hypoplasia of the nasal turbinates, and external rotation of the forelimbs. One pig displayed bilateral cryptorchidism, markedly thin and shortened hindlimbs, and syndactyly of both hind feet. Radiographs and gross dissection confirmed the presence of single ossified proximal to distal phalanges of both feet, bilaterally shortened tibias with fibular aplasia, and delayed ossification of tarsal as well as carpal bones. Conclusions. To the author’s knowledge, this is the first reported case of hindlimb meromelia with syndactyly in a pig.
Failure of Passive Transfer in Camel Calves: 4 Cases (2010-2019)
Failure of passive transfer is a management concern for all ruminant species, but is not well described in the literature for camel calves. This case series presents four camel calves (Camelus dromedarius and Camelus bactrianus) referred to a North American veterinary teaching hospital for diagnosis and management of failure of passive transfer. Diagnostics utilized included hematology, serum biochemistry, and immunologic methods as described for crias. Management included antimicrobial, anti-inflammatory, and plasma transfusion therapies. Three of the four calves survived to discharge, and common diagnostic practices such as evaluation of total solids, total protein, immunoglobulin G, and sodium sulfite appear to be correlate to passive transfer status in these four calves. Xenotransfusion with llama plasma was well tolerated by two calves, and xenotransfusion with bovine plasma was well tolerated by an additional calf in this study. An additional work is necessary to develop validated breakpoints for diagnosis of passive transfer status in camel calves.
Surgical Treatment of Upward Fixation of the Patella in a Multiparous Borana Breed Cow
A 6-year-old multiparous Borana breed cow, which has been suffering from difficulty walking for 6 months, was presented to veterinary teaching hospital. As her previous history indicated, the lameness started during the second gestation, especially in the early morning, and subsides after a few hours of sunrise. She was completely cured after giving her second birth and a similar condition reappeared from the 5th month of the third gestation until she gave birth. However, unexpectedly the disease aggravated after 2 days of parturition, and she was unable to walk and forced to stay indoors due to complete extension of the stifle joint. As a result, she was unable to lay down and maintained a permanent standing position for 2 months of aggravation. Clinical findings showed difficult mobilization of the right hind leg, which was locked in extension at the stifle joint, and the hoof was dragging on the floor. Based on history and clinical findings, upper fixation of the patella was diagnosed, and it was treated with median patellar desmotomy under local anesthetic infiltration. Finally, after the complete severing of the medial ligament and skin closure, the animal was able to walk normally, and the wound was healed uneventfully.
Z-Bar Shoeing Demonstrates Potential for Long-Term Foot Pain Management during an Exercise Training Regimen in a Show Jumping Pony with Uniaxial Palmar Pain
Z-bar shoeing has been implemented to relieve uniaxial palmar pain arising from the structures in the affected region. However, there have been no reports on the long-term application of the z-bar shoe during exercise training regimens. A 10-year-old mixed-breed show jumping pony presented with an occasional short stride and abnormal rhythm while turning during routine exercise for three months. Gait analysis conducted by trotting off on both hard and soft surfaces showed no lameness in the straight line on both types of surfaces. However, right forelimb lameness was detected with moderate and slight pain accompanying hard surface lunging in clockwise and counterclockwise directions, respectively. Sequential examination of uniaxial perineural anaesthesia confirmed that the pony suffered from medial palmar pain on the right foreleg. Mild distal border irregularity of the navicular bone was also observed radiographically. The z-bar shoe was designed relative to the palmar digital anaesthesia and subsequently applied on the lame leg. The pony demonstrated a marked reduction in lameness severity immediately post-Z-bar shoeing. Physical exercise was resumed a few days after the shoeing practice. The pony underwent routine exercise training while continuously fitting with the Z-bar shoe for 24 weeks without recurrent lameness or complications. Application of z-bar shoe showed the potential for long-term foot pain management during an exercise training regimen in a show jumping pony with uniaxial palmar pain.
Lymph Node Abscessation Secondary to Neoplasia in Two Dogs
A 5-year-old male neutered mixed breed dog and an 8-year-old female spayed golden retriever presented for cervical swelling which was later diagnosed as abscessation of the retropharyngeal lymph node with a malignant round cell tumor and carcinoma with multifocal squamous differentiation, respectively. In veterinary medicine, there is limited published information regarding abscessation of lymph nodes secondary to a neoplastic process. While more common in humans, there are only limited case reports available. Advanced imaging (computed tomography), cytology, surgical excision, and histopathology lead to the final diagnosis. Both dogs underwent surgical extirpation of the lymph nodes and adjuvant chemotherapy protocols. Six weeks postsurgical excision, dog one was euthanized due to quality-of-life concerns. The second dog successfully completed 18 treatments of radiation therapy and was still alive at 388 days postsurgical excision. At the time of manuscript submission, the second dog was doing well clinically.
Use of 3-D Models for Surgical Planning of a Malunion in a Dog
Background. An 8-year-old, 18.9 kg, male, intact Kai Ken with a femoral shaft fracture experienced recurrent implant breakage after two fracture reductions using an internal fixator. Objectives. This case report is aimed at using a three-dimensional (3-D) printer to diagnose residual femoral rotational deviation. Implant failures and malunion occurred after two attempts at synthesis. Thus, a 3-D model was designed for preoperative planning of a third surgery. Methods. To evaluate the alignment in the postoperative state after the second surgery, we removed a broken plate from the affected limb. Subsequently, a computed tomography image produced a bone replica using 3-D printing. The distal fragment was fixed and rotated externally by 42°. In addition to correcting the rotational deformity of the femur, we used an intramedullary pin and two locking plates to stabilize the proximal and distal femoral fracture segments. Results. The bone union was confirmed four months after surgery, and no postoperative complications were observed 11 months after surgery. Conclusion. 3-D printing is a valuable tool that increases the accuracy of presurgical planning.