Use of Preoperative 3D Virtual Planning and 3D-Printed Patient-Specific Guides to Facilitate a Single-Stage Cranial Closing Wedge Ostectomy and Tibial Plateau Leveling Osteotomy Procedure to Address Proximal Tibial Deformity, an Excessive Tibial Plateau Angle, and Cranial Cruciate Ligament Insufficiency in a DogRead the full article
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Emergency Removal of a Proximal Tracheal Foreign Body by Tracheotomy in a Dog and a Cat
There have been few reports of emergency cases of proximal tracheal foreign bodies in dogs and cats. Here, we report a dog and a cat that underwent an emergency tracheotomy for a foreign body in the proximal trachea. Case 1 was a dog with respiratory arrest caused by a large stone in the proximal trachea. The stone was immediately removed via tracheotomy without anesthesia. After intubation and ventilation under anesthesia, hypoxia persisted but improved after aspiration of 100 mL of bloody fluid from the lower trachea. Case 2 was a cat with dyspnea because of a proximal tracheal stone and increased radiopacity in the right lung. The stone was removed via tracheotomy after mask induction of anesthesia, followed by intubation and incision closure. Radiographs immediately after extubation showed worsened right lung atelectasis, alleviated by reintubation and positive pressure ventilation. Both patients recovered completely after surgery. An emergency tracheotomy may be indicated for a large foreign body in the proximal trachea. Additionally, concurrent conditions in the lower respiratory tract should be addressed.
Delayed Urethral Obstruction after Migration of a Ballistic Pellet in an Alpine Wether
A one-year-old alpine wether was presented for emergency evaluation of stranguria. Diagnostics identified a moderately distended bladder and mild dehydration. Preliminary lateral radiographs identified two metallic structures consistent with projectile pellets in the pelvic and perineal regions and no evidence of radiopaque uroliths. A tube cystostomy was performed, and a contrast urethrogram revealed one of the pellets in the perineal region was in proximity to the urethral obstruction. Subsequent radiography and ultrasound identified the pellet as being within the lumen of the urethra. Examination of the trichotomized skin revealed two scars, including a scar over the paralumbar fossa in the region of the urinary bladder suggestive of a projectile injury. The pellet was removed by a perineal urethrotomy. The patient was able to spontaneously urinate after urethrotomy, passed a tube cystostomy challenge two weeks after surgery, and was discharged. No complications were reported. While uncommon in the veterinary and comparative medical literature, clinicians should consider the potential for projectile pellets to migrate into the urinary tract after initial injury.
Explant of a Chronic Atlantoaxial Implant Infection in a Dog
An 11-year-old male neutered Yorkshire Terrier was presented with a cervical mass that developed a draining tract. Aside from the dysphagia reported by the owner, his neurologic exam was normal. Three years prior, the patient was diagnosed with an atlantoaxial subluxation that was ventrally stabilized with polymethylmethacrylate (PMMA) and self-tapping titanium screws. There were no postoperative complications until presenting with the cervical mass and dysphagia. Computerized tomography (CT) of the cervical spine confirmed caudal migration of the PMMA and screws with an abscess surrounding the implant. A surgical explant of the PMMA and screws was performed without complication. The atlantoaxial joint remained normally aligned on postoperative radiographs. Cultures of the implant grew Streptococcus bovis. He was treated with cephalexin (22 mg/kg PO BID) for 30 days. At the time of his one-month recheck, he was swallowing normally with no neurologic deficits. He remains normal at the time of this report (17 months later). This case reports a successful explant of a chronic atlantoaxial implant infection.
Renal Agenesis, Extramural Ectopic Ureter, and Nonfunctioning Urinary Bladder: A Difficult Clinical Case with an Innovative Approach
Summary. A 7-month-old female Jack Russell Terrier weighing 4.6 kg was referred to a veterinary hospital for persistent urinary incontinence. Blood test results and vital signs were within the normal range. Computed tomography allowed the diagnosis of extramural ectopic ureter and unilateral renal agenesis. After the first neoureterocystostomy surgery, the dog had severe complications, such as hydroureter and hydronephrosis, so a second surgery was performed. A commercial ureteral stent was not an option, and it was decided to fabricate a homemade stent to avoid euthanasia. The stent used was a soft, DEHP-free PVC tube with a lumen of mm and a length of approximately 40 mm that connected the ureter to the urinary bladder. Two years after surgery, the dog is in good general condition, and the results of regularly performed blood and urine tests are within the normal range for dogs.
A Rare Incidence of Sweating Sickness-Like Symptoms in a Crossbred Holstein Friesian Cow in Chattogram, Bangladesh
In this report, an incidence of sweating sickness-like symptoms in a crossbred Holstein Friesian cow was diagnosed. The cow was suffering from vaporization of the skin, dehydration, wet hair coat, and matting of hair due to excessive sweating. There were several ticks, flies, and mosquitoes in tail switch and other parts of the body. Blood and urine parameters were tested. We treated the patient successfully with ivermectin as ectoparasite control, ceftiofur sodium antibiotic to treat bacterial infections, ketoprofen as analgesics and antipyretics, chlorpheniramine maleate as H2-blocker, and trichlorfon and povidone-iodine skin spray to prevent fly invasion and prevent opportunistic bacterial infection, respectively. Acyclovir and oil of turpentine were suggested to be sprayed on the floor and wall of the shed for viral and ectoparasitic control. Our treatment regime successfully recovered the cow with no recurrence.
Arthroscopic Treatment of Chronic Cruciate Ligament Rupture in the Dog without Stifle Stabilization: 13 Cases (2001-2020)
Objective. The objective was to study clinical outcomes in dogs with chronic cruciate ligament rupture (CR) treated with palliative arthroscopy as the sole surgical treatment. Methods. Thirteen client-owned dogs with CR underwent physical examination, stifle radiography, and arthroscopy with resection of damaged meniscal tissue. Records were evaluated, and orthopaedic examination, radiographs, and arthroscopy images were assessed. Long-term clinical outcome was also assessed by use of an owner questionnaire. Results. Thirteen dogs that underwent arthroscopy at the UW Veterinary Care between 2001 and 2020 were included. Long-term follow-up was available for 7 of 13 dogs. Lameness was static to improved in all dogs in which arthroscopy was performed. Subsequent stifle stabilization was performed after arthroscopy in only 1 of 7 dogs with follow-up data. Conclusion. Palliative arthroscopy and resection of damaged meniscal tissue in combination with medical management of osteoarthritis can be considered in dogs with chronic CR and cranial tibial subluxation with little passive laxity during examination. Revision surgery with TPLO is uncommon after arthroscopy based on this study.