Effects of the Indoor Environment on the Fraction of Exhaled Nitric Oxide in School-Aged Children
BACKGROUND: The fractional concentration of exhaled nitric oxide (FeNO) appears to be a good marker for airway inflammation in children with asthma.OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the effect of environmental exposures on exhaled nitric oxide in a community sample of children.METHODS: The relationship among exhaled nitric oxide, underlying disease and home environmental exposures was examined using questionnaire data and measurement of exhaled nitric oxide in a cross-sectional study of 1135 children that included healthy children, and children with allergies and/or asthma who were attending grades 4 through 6 in Windsor, Ontario.RESULTS: Among healthy children, there was a positive association between FeNO and occupancy (P<0.02). Compared with forced air and hot water radiant heat, electric baseboard heating was associated with a significant increase of FeNO in healthy children (P=0.007) and children with allergies (P=0.043). FeNO was not associated with environmental tobacco smoke exposure or reported surface mold. The presence of pet dog(s), but not cats, was associated with a significantly lower FeNO in healthy children (P<0.001) and in children with reported allergies (P<0.001).CONCLUSIONS: The type of heating system, but not previously reported environmental tobacco smoke or mold exposure appears to affect exhaled nitric oxide in children. Exposure to different types of pets may have disparate effects on airway inflammation.