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Canadian Respiratory Journal
Volume 2017 (2017), Article ID 2397429, 9 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/2397429
Research Article

Invasive Pneumococcal Disease: Still Lots to Learn and a Need for Standardized Data Collection Instruments

1Department of Medicine, Dalhousie University, Halifax, NS, Canada
2The Division of Diagnostic and Applied Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine and Pathology, University of Alberta and The Provincial Laboratory for Public Health, Edmonton, AB, Canada
3Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada
4School of Public Health, University of Alberta, Edmonton, AB, Canada

Correspondence should be addressed to T. J. Marrie; ac.lad@eirram.t

Received 6 January 2017; Revised 23 February 2017; Accepted 5 March 2017; Published 23 March 2017

Academic Editor: R. Andrew Mcivor

Copyright © 2017 T. J. Marrie et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Background. Large studies of invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) are frequently lacking detailed clinical information. Methods. A population-based 15-year study of IPD in Northern Alberta. Results. 2435 patients with a mean age of 54.2 years formed the study group. Males outnumbered females and Aboriginal and homeless persons were overrepresented. High rates of smoking, excessive alcohol use, and illicit drug use were seen. Almost all (87%) had a major comorbidity and 15% had functional limitations prior to admission. Bacteremia, pneumonia, and meningitis were the most common major manifestations of IPD. Almost half of the patients had alteration of mental status at the time of admission and 22% required mechanical ventilation. Myocardial infarction, pulmonary embolism, and new onset stroke occurred in 1.7, 1.3, and 1.1% of the patients, respectively; of those who had echocardiograms, 35% had impaired ventricular function. The overall in-hospital mortality was 15.6%. Conclusions. IPD remains a serious infection in adults. In addition to immunization, preventative measures need to consider the sociodemographic features more carefully. A standard set of data need to be collected so that comparisons can be made from study to study. Future investigations should target cardiac function and pulmonary embolism prevention in this population.