Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Canadian Respiratory Journal
Volume 2017, Article ID 5035932, 13 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2017/5035932
Review Article

Nontuberculous Mycobacteria in Saudi Arabia and Gulf Countries: A Review

Department of Infection and Immunity, King Faisal Specialist Hospital and Research Center, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia

Correspondence should be addressed to Sahal Al-Hajoj; as.ude.crhsfk@jojah

Received 7 November 2016; Revised 5 January 2017; Accepted 1 February 2017; Published 27 February 2017

Academic Editor: Isabella Annesi-Maesano

Copyright © 2017 Hawra Al-Ghafli and Sahal Al-Hajoj. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. Ventura, C. Canchaya, A. Tauch et al., “Genomics of Actinobacteria: tracing the evolutionary history of an ancient phylum,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 71, no. 3, pp. 495–548, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. M. M. Johnson and J. A. Odell, “Nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary infections,” Journal of Thoracic Disease, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 210–220, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. Tortoli, “Impact of genotypic studies on mycobacterial taxonomy: the new mycobacteria of the 1990s,” Clinical Microbiology Reviews, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 319–354, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. World Health Organisation, Global Tuberculosis Report 2015, World Health Organisation, Geneva, Switzerland, 2015.
  5. E. C. Hett and E. J. Rubin, “Bacterial growth and cell division: a mycobacterial perspective,” Microbiology and Molecular Biology Reviews, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 126–156, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. J. Van Ingen, M. J. Boeree, D. Van Soolingen, and J. W. Mouton, “Resistance mechanisms and drug susceptibility testing of nontuberculous mycobacteria,” Drug Resistance Updates, vol. 15, no. 3, pp. 149–161, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. S. Faria, I. Joao, and L. Jordao, “General overview on nontuberculous mycobacteria, biofilms, and human infection,” Journal of Pathogens, vol. 2015, Article ID 809014, 10 pages, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  8. D. E. Griffith, T. Aksamit, B. A. Brown-Elliott et al., “An official ATS/IDSA statement: diagnosis, treatment, and prevention of nontuberculous mycobacterial diseases,” American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, vol. 175, no. 4, pp. 367–416, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. Simons, J. van Ingen, P.-R. Hsueh et al., “Nontuberculous mycobacteria in respiratory tract infections, Eastern Asia,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 343–349, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. E. E. Bodle, J. A. Cunningham, P. Della-Latta, N. W. Schluger, and L. Saiman, “Epidemiology of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients without HIV infection, New York City,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 14, no. 3, pp. 390–396, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. I. K. Neonakis, Z. Gitti, I. S. Kourbeti et al., “Mycobacterial species diversity at a general hospital on the island of crete: first detection of mycobacterium lentiflavum in Greece,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 39, no. 10, pp. 875–879, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. P. M. Cassidy, K. Hedberg, A. Saulson, E. McNelly, and K. L. Winthrop, “Nontuberculous mycobacterial disease prevalence and risk factors: a changing epidemiology,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 49, no. 12, pp. e124–e129, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. M. A. De Groote and G. Huitt, “Infections due to rapidly growing mycobacteria,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 42, no. 12, pp. 1756–1763, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. M. A. Enani, H. H. Frayha, and M. A. Halim, “An appendiceal abscess due to Mycobacterium kansasii in a child with AIDS,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 27, no. 4, pp. 891–892, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. M. E. Ellis and S. M. H. Qadri, “Mycobacteria other than tuberculosis producing disease in a tertiary referral hospital,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 508–515, 1993. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. P. Chetchotisakd, S. Kiertiburanakul, P. Mootsikapun, S. Assanasen, R. Chaiwarith, and S. Anunnatsiri, “Disseminated nontuberculous mycobacterial infection in patients who are not infected with HIV in Thailand,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 45, no. 4, pp. 421–427, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. S. H. Al-Mahruqi, J. Van Ingen, S. Al-Busaidy et al., “Clinical relevance of nontuberculous mycobacteria, Oman,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, no. 2, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. E. Mokaddas and S. Ahmad, “Species spectrum of nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated from clinical specimens in Kuwait,” Current Microbiology, vol. 56, no. 5, pp. 413–417, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. B. Varghese, Z. Memish, N. Abuljadayel, R. Al-Hakeem, F. Alrabiah, and S. A. Al-Hajoj, “Emergence of clinically relevant non-tuberculous mycobacterial infections in Saudi Arabia,” PLoS Neglected Tropical Diseases, vol. 7, no. 5, Article ID e2234, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. Al-Harbi, H. Al-Jahdali, S. Al-Johani, S. Baharoon, S. Bin Salih, and M. Khan, “Frequency and clinical significance of respiratory isolates of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in Riyadh, Saudi Arabia,” Clinical Respiratory Journal, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 198–203, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Zaman, “Tuberculosis in Saudi Arabia: epidemiology and incidence of Mycobacterium tuberculosis and other mycobacteriai species,” Tubercle, vol. 72, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. R. Pinto-Powell, K. N. Olivier, B. J. Marsh et al., “Skin testing with Mycobacterium avium sensitin to identify infection with M. avium complex in patients with cystic fibrosis,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 560–562, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. F. M. T. Lewis, B. J. Marsh, and C. F. Von Reyn, “Fish tank exposure and cutaneous infections due to mycobacterium marinum: tuberculin skin testing, treatment, and prevention,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 390–397, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. R. N. Hamam, B. Noureddin, H. I. Salti, R. Haddad, and J. M. Khoury, “Recalcitrant post-LASIK Mycobacterium chelonae keratitis eradicated after the use of fourth-generation fluoroquinolone,” Ophthalmology, vol. 113, no. 6, pp. 950–954, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. M. M. Balkis, M. M. Kattar, G. F. Araj, and S. S. Kanj, “Fatal disseminated Mycobacterium simiae infection in a non-HIV patient,” International Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 5, pp. e286–e287, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. A. El-Khalawany, “Atypical mycobacterial cutaneous infections in Egyptians: a clinicopathological study,” Journal of Dermatology, vol. 41, no. 4, pp. 303–310, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Bamias, G. L. Daikos, S. I. Siakavellas et al., “Atypical mycobacterial infection presenting as persistent skin lesion in a patient with ulcerative colitis,” Case Reports in Medicine, vol. 2011, Article ID 480987, 4 pages, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  28. M. Gunaydin, K. Yanik, C. Eroglu et al., “Distribution of Nontuberculous Mycobacteria strains,” Annals of Clinical Microbiology and Antimicrobials, vol. 12, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. A. Velayati, S. Rahideh, Z. Derakhshani Nezhad, P. Farnia, and M. Mirsaeidi, “Nontuberculous mycobacteria in Middle East: current situation and future challenges,” International Journal of Mycobacteriology, vol. 4, no. 1, pp. 7–17, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. van Ingen, S. A. M. Al-Haijoj, M. Boeree et al., “Mycobacterium riyadhense sp. nov., a non-tuberculous species identified as Mycobacterium tuberculosis complex by a commercial line-probe assay,” International Journal of Systematic and Evolutionary Microbiology, vol. 59, no. 5, pp. 1049–1053, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. S. T. Alkhawaja and N. N. Khalifa, “Mycobacterium marinum infection after infliximab therapy,” Iranian Journal of Allergy, Asthma and Immunology, vol. 9, pp. 255–257, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  32. S. Godreuil, H. Marchandin, A.-L. Michon et al., “Mycobacterium riyadhense pulmonary infection, France and Bahrain,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 176–178, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Albayrak, H. ŞimşEk, F. Sezen, A. ArslantÜrk, C. Tarhan, and I. Ceyhan, “[Evaluation of the distribution of non-tuberculous mycobacteria strains isolated in national tuberculosis reference laboratory in 2009-2010, Turkey],” Mikrobiyoloji Bulteni, vol. 46, no. 4, pp. 560–567, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. L. Rindi and C. Garzelli, “Increase in non-tuberculous mycobacteria isolated from humans in Tuscany, Italy, from 2004 to 2014,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, article 44, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. E. Moore, M. E. Kruijshaar, L. P. Ormerod, F. Drobniewski, and I. Abubakar, “Increasing reports of non-tuberculous mycobacteria in England, Wales and Northern Ireland, 1995–2006,” BMC Public Health, vol. 10, article no. 612, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. G. Satyanarayana, S. K. Heysell, K. W. Scully, and E. R. Houpt, “Mycobacterial infections in a large Virginia hospital, 2001–2009,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 11, article 113, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. R. M. Thomson, “Changing epidemiology of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria infections,” Emerging Infectious Diseases, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 1576–1583, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. J. Umrao, D. Singh, A. Zia et al., “Prevalence and species spectrum of both pulmonary and extrapulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria isolates at a tertiary care center,” International Journal of Mycobacteriology, vol. 5, no. 3, pp. 288–293, 2016. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Wu, Y. Zhang, J. Li et al., “Increase in nontuberculous mycobacteria isolated in Shanghai, China: results from a population-based study,” PLoS ONE, vol. 9, no. 10, Article ID e109736, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  40. S. W. Ryoo, S. Shin, M.-S. Shim et al., “Spread of nontuberculous mycobacteria from 1993 to 2006 in Koreans,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 415–420, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Al Houqani, F. Jamieson, P. Chedore, M. Mehta, K. May, and T. K. Marras, “Isolation prevalence of pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacteria in Ontario in 2007,” Canadian Respiratory Journal, vol. 18, no. 1, pp. 19–24, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. Chanda-Kapata, N. Kapata, E. Klinkenberg et al., “Non-tuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) in Zambia: prevalence, clinical, radiological and microbiological characteristics,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, no. 1, article 500, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  43. E. Tortoli, “Clinical manifestations of nontuberculous mycobacteria infections,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 906–910, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Wali, M. Abdelaziz, A. Krayem et al., “The presence of atypical mycobacteria in the mouthwashes of normal subjects: role of tap water and oral hygiene,” Annals of Thoracic Medicine, vol. 3, no. 1, pp. 5–8, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. B. L. Robinson, S. Grzybowski, E. J. Bowmer, J. McDiarmid, E. I. Whittaker, and K. Tanner, “Atypical mycobacterial disease in British Columbia, 1960–1967,” Canadian Medical Association journal, vol. 101, no. 1, pp. 17–24, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. P. M. Arnow, M. Bakir, K. Thompson, and J. L. Bova, “Endemic contamination of clinical specimens by Mycobacterium gordonae,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 31, no. 2, pp. 472–476, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. P. A. Jenkins, “The epidemiology of opportunist mycobacterial infections in Wales, 1952–1978,” Reviews of Infectious Diseases, vol. 3, no. 5, pp. 1021–1023, 1981. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. M. Debrunner, M. Salfinger, O. Brändli, and A. Von Graevenitz, “Epidemiology and clinical significance of nontuberculous mycobacteria in patients negative for human immunodeficiency virus in switzerland,” Clinical Infectious Diseases, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 330–345, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. O. Falkinham III, “Nontuberculous mycobacteria in the environment,” Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 529–551, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. L. N. Jarikre, “Case report: disseminated Mycobacterium gordonae infection in a nonimmunocompromised host,” The American Journal of the Medical Sciences, vol. 302, no. 6, pp. 382–384, 1991. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. L. N. Jarikre, “Mycobacterium gordonae genitourinary disease,” Genitourinary Medicine, vol. 68, no. 1, pp. 45–46, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. M. A. Alqumber, “Prevalence of mycobacteria in water reservoirs of Albaha, Saudi Arabia,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 35, no. 5, pp. 466–471, 2014. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. I. Perez-Martinez, D. A. Aguilar-Ayala, E. Fernandez-Rendon et al., “Occurrence of potentially pathogenic nontuberculous mycobacteria in Mexican household potable water: a pilot study,” BMC Research Notes, vol. 6, no. 1, article no. 531, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. R. M. Thomson, R. Carter, C. Tolson, C. Coulter, F. Huygens, and M. Hargreaves, “Factors associated with the isolation of Nontuberculous mycobacteria (NTM) from a large municipal water system in Brisbane, Australia,” BMC Microbiology, vol. 13, no. 1, article no. 89, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. A. A. Al-Sulami, A. M. R. Al-Taee, and Q. H. Wida'a, “Isolation and identification of Mycobacterium avium complex and other nontuberculosis mycobacteria from drinking-water in Basra governorate, Iraq,” Eastern Mediterranean Health Journal, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 274–278, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. K. I. Hassan and A. A. Ali, “Detection of Mycobacterium avium in milk powder using species specific PCR,” International Journal of Advanced Science and Engineering Technology On Line, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 115–119, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  57. A. M. Hamzah, “Mycobacterium spp. isolated from horses fecal samples,” International Journal of Medicine and Pharmaceutical Sciences (IJMPS), vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 23–28, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  58. G. E. Genc, E. Richter, and Z. Erturan, “Isolation of nontuberculous mycobacteria from hospital waters in Turkey,” APMIS, vol. 121, no. 12, pp. 1192–1197, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. G. Satta, T. D. McHugh, J. Mountford, I. Abubakar, and M. Lipman, “Managing pulmonary nontuberculous mycobacterial infection. time for a patient-centered approach,” Annals of the American Thoracic Society, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 117–121, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. M. M. Saad, A. N. Alshukairi, M. O. Qutub, N. A. Elkhizzi, H. M. Hilluru, and A. S. Omrani, “Mycobacterium riyadhense infections,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 36, no. 5, pp. 620–625, 2015. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. D. Chae, “The impact of a new ATS/IDSA guideline for nontuberculous mycobacterial disease on the diagnosis of nontuberculous mycobacterial lung disease in Korea,” Chest, vol. 138, no. 4, p. 681A, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  62. M. D. C. Ramos, H. Soini, G. C. Roscanni, M. Jaques, M. C. Villares, and J. M. Musser, “Extensive cross-contamination of specimens with Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a reference laboratory,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 916–919, 1999. View at Google Scholar
  63. S. Segal-Maurer, B. N. Kreiswirth, J. M. Burns et al., “Mycobacterium tuberculosis specimen contamination revisited: the role of laboratory environmental control in a pseudo-outbreak,” Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 101–105, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. S. A. Al-Hajoj and F. A. Alrabiah, “Role of tuberculosis laboratories in Saudi Arabia. A call to implement standardized procedures,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 1545–1548, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. A. Al-Hajoj, “Molecular strain typing of Mycobacterium tuberculosis isolates to detect cross-contamination events: proposed modifications to prevent its recurrence,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 1515–1519, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. R. Weinstein and W. Stamm, “Pseudoepidemics in hospital,” The Lancet, vol. 310, no. 8043, pp. 862–864, 1977. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. S. K. Field, D. Fisher, and R. L. Cowie, “Mycobacterium avium complex pulmonary disease in patients without HIV infection,” Chest, vol. 126, no. 2, pp. 566–581, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. I. El Mouzan, A. A. Al Salloum, A. S. Al Herbish, M. M. Qurachi, and A. A. Al Omar, “Consanguinity and major genetic disorders in Saudi children: a community-based cross-sectional study,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 169–173, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. W.-J. Koh, O. J. Kwon, and K. S. Lee, “Diagnosis and treatment of nontuberculous mycobacterial pulmonary diseases: a Korean perspective,” Journal of Korean Medical Science, vol. 20, no. 6, pp. 913–925, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. C. L. Daley and D. E. Griffith, “Pulmonary disease caused by rapidly growing mycobacteria,” Clinics in Chest Medicine, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 623–632, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. B. Varghese, S. E. Shajan, M. O. Al Saedi, and S. A. Al-Hajoj, “First case report of chronic pulmonary lung disease caused by Mycobacterium abscessus in two immunocompetent patients in Saudi Arabia,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 312–314, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. W. Jamal, M. F. Salama, G. Al Hashem et al., “An outbreak of Mycobacterium abscessus infection in a Pediatric Intensive Care Unit in Kuwait,” Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 33, no. 3, pp. e67–e70, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. J.-I. Choi, J.-H. Lim, S.-R. Kim et al., “Lung infection caused by Mycobacterium riyadhense confused with Mycobacterium tuberculosis: the first case in Korea,” Annals of Laboratory Medicine, vol. 32, no. 4, pp. 298–303, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. M. Garbati and A. Hakawi, “Mycobacterium riyadhense lung infection in a patient with HIV/AIDS,” Sub-Saharan African Journal of Medicine, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 56–58, 2014. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  75. S. Al-Hajoj, B. Varghese, J. van Ingen, and D. van Soolingen, “Mycobacterium riyadhense overlooked: we can only find what we are looking for,” Journal of Infection in Developing Countries, vol. 7, no. 3, pp. 293–294, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  76. S. A. M. Al-Hajoj, O. Akkerman, I. Parwati et al., “Microevolution of Mycobacterium tuberculosis in a tuberculosis patient,” Journal of Clinical Microbiology, vol. 48, no. 10, pp. 3813–3816, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  77. D. V. D. García, M. Marín, S. Andrés, G. Lorenzo, M. J. Ruiz-Serrano, and E. Bouza, “Complex clonal features in an Mycobacterium tuberculosis infection in a two-year-old child,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 457–459, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  78. I. C. Shamputa, L. Jugheli, N. Sadradze et al., “Mixed infection and clonal representativeness of a single sputum sample in tuberculosis patients from a penitentiary hospital in Georgia,” Respiratory Research, vol. 7, article 99, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  79. M. A. Simbli, F. A. Niaz, and J. S. Al-Wakeel, “Encapsulating peritoneal sclerosis in a peritoneal dialysis patient presenting with complicated Mycobacterium fortuitum peritonitis,” Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 3, pp. 635–641, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  80. A. U. Syed, R. Hussain, A. N. Bhat et al., “Mediastinitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum infection following Fontan operation in a child,” Scandinavian Cardiovascular Journal, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 311–316, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  81. S. H. Annobil, G. A. Jamjoom, R. Bobo, and J. Iyengar, “Fatal lipoid pneumonia in an infant complicated by Mycobacterium fortuitum infection,” Tropical and Geographical Medicine, vol. 44, no. 1-2, pp. 160–164, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  82. F. M. Al Majid, “Peritonitis due to Mycobacterium fortuitum following gastric banding,” Saudi Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 16, no. 2, pp. 113–115, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  83. A.-W. N. Meshikhes, A. Al-Gassab, L. Y. Al-Jaffar, M. Tinguria, Z. S. Al-Meer, and F. Borgio, “Atypical mycobacteria: an unusual cause of breast abscess,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 337–339, 1997. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  84. N. Siddiqi and I. Sheikh, “Peritonitis caused by Mycobacterium abscesses in patients on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis,” Saudi Journal of Kidney Diseases and Transplantation, vol. 23, no. 2, pp. 321–324, 2012. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  85. H. I. Hakami, A. A. Alhazmi, and A. A. Alrajhi, “Mycobacterium abscessus peritonitis associated with laparoscopic gastric banding,” BMC Infectious Diseases, vol. 13, no. 1, article 323, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  86. H. Almoallim, L. Alharbi, Z. Alshareef, and G. Wali, “A case of erosive polyarthritis in a patient diagnosed with a suspicion of atypical mycobacteria,” Open Rheumatology Journal, vol. 7, no. 1, pp. 64–66, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  87. A. M. Somily, A. R. Al-Anazi, H. A. Babay et al., “Mycobacterium chelonae complex bacteremia from a post-renal transplant patient: case report and literature review,” Japanese Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 63, no. 1, pp. 61–64, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  88. S. Wali, “Mycobacterium chelonae empyema with bronchopleural fistula in an immunocompetent patient,” Annals of Thoracic Medicine, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 213–215, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  89. A. F. Al-Mobeireek, “Rapidly growing mycobacterial pulmonary infection in association with severe gastroesophageal reflux disease,” Saudi Medical Journal, vol. 23, no. 7, pp. 854–856, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  90. R. AlKhodair and S. Al-Khenaizan, “Fish tank granuloma: misdiagnosed as cutaneous leishmaniasis,” International Journal of Dermatology, vol. 49, no. 1, pp. 53–55, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  91. A. M. Hakawi and A. A. Alrajhi, “Septic arthritis due to Mycobacterium szulgai in a patient with human immunodeficiency virus: case report,” Scandinavian Journal of Infectious Diseases, vol. 37, no. 3, pp. 235–236, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  92. H. Al Soub, E. Al-Maslamani, and M. Al-Maslamani, “Mycobacterium fortuitum abdominal wall abscesses following liposuction,” Indian Journal of Plastic Surgery, vol. 41, no. 1, pp. 58–61, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  93. H. Al Soub, M. Al Maslamani, J. Al Khuwaiter, Y. El Deeb, and M. Abu Khattab, “Myocardial abscess and bacteremia complicating mycobacterium fortuitum pacemaker infection: case report and review of the literature,” The Pediatric Infectious Disease Journal, vol. 28, no. 11, pp. 1032–1034, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  94. K. Al-Benwan, S. Ahmad, E. Mokaddas, M. Johny, and M. Kapoor, “Diagnosis of endocarditis caused by Mycobacterium abscessus,” Annals of Saudi Medicine, vol. 30, no. 5, pp. 408–411, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  95. T. K. Marras, P. Chedore, A. M. Ying, and F. Jamieson, “Isolation prevalence of pulmonary non-tuberculous mycobacteria in Ontario, 1997–2003,” Thorax, vol. 62, no. 8, pp. 661–666, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  96. P. C. A. M. Buijtels, M. A. B. van der Sande, S. Parkinson, H. A. Verbrugh, P. L. C. Petit, and D. van Soolingen, “Isolation of non-tuberculous mycobacteria at three rural settings in Zambia; A Pilot Study,” Clinical Microbiology and Infection, vol. 16, no. 8, pp. 1142–1148, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus