Table 5: Adjusted effects of proportional risk factors on subhazard from ARD death, Barcelona (Spain), 1970–2006 ().

PredictorsSHR (95% CI)& value

Smoking status
 Nonsmoker (Ref.)10.003
 Smoker1.01 (0.59–1.71)
 Former0.56 (0.35–0.87)
 Missing1.79 (0.98–3.26)
Source of exposure
 Environmental (Ref.)10.074
 Household1.98 (1.07–3.64)
 Labor1.22 (0.68–2.19)
Length of exposure (yrs)
 [0–11.3) (Ref.)10.935
 [11.3–20.9)1.17 (0.70–1.97)
 [20.9–30.6)1.20 (0.63–2.26)
 >=30.61.18 (0.58–2.42)
Number of ARD
 1 benign (Ref.)1<0.001
 2 or 3 benign1.94 (0.86–4.38)
 4 or 5 benign10.28 (3.36–31.43)
 At least 1 malign128.30 (61.82–266.25)

Note. Ref: reference; SHR: subdistribution hazard ratio; CI: confidence interval; &Cox proportional hazard model, accounting for other causes of death as competing risks. Robust standard errors. All SHRs were adjusted for the other covariates in the table and sex, age groups, and and age interactions