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Canadian Respiratory Journal
Volume 2018, Article ID 9060678, 5 pages
Research Article

Effects of Habenular Stimulation Frequencies on Obstructive Sleep Apnea Induced by Stimulation of Insular Cortex

1The First Affiliated Hospital of Jilin University, Changchun 130021, China
2Jilin Medical University, Jilin 132013, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Ming-Xian Li; moc.361@811_naixgnimil

Received 31 August 2017; Revised 26 December 2017; Accepted 22 January 2018; Published 26 March 2018

Academic Editor: Emmanuel Charbonney

Copyright © 2018 Jing Kang and Ming-Xian Li. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Objective. To investigate the effects of high-frequency stimulation of the habenula (Hb) on obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) induced by stimulation of the insular cortex Method. After OSA was induced by stimulating the insular cortex (Ic) with concentric stimulating electrodes at 100 Hz in rats, the Hb was stimulated at different frequencies (50 Hz, 120 Hz, 130 Hz, and 280 Hz). The changes of apnea events and electromyography (EMG) of the genioglossus were compared before and after stimulation of the Hb. Results. With stimulation of the Ic at 100 Hz, apnea events were successfully induced with disappearance of EMG of the genioglossus. After stimulation of the Hb at 130 Hz, apnea events disappeared with significantly increased genioglossal EMG. However, such a change failed to be found at the stimulation frequencies of 50 Hz, 120 Hz, and 280 Hz. Conclusion. Stimulation of the Hb at the frequency of 130 Hz could effectively inhibit OSA events induced by stimulation of the Ic.