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Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2011, Article ID 747861, 16 pages
Review Article

Metabolic Syndrome, Chronic Kidney Disease, and Cardiovascular Disease: A Dynamic and Life-Threatening Triad

Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation, Centro Hospitalar Lisboa Norte, EPE, Hospital de Santa Maria, Avenida Professor Egas Moniz, 1649-035 Lisboa, Portugal

Received 7 October 2010; Revised 6 December 2010; Accepted 24 December 2010

Academic Editor: Ken Ichi Aihara

Copyright © 2011 Mário Raimundo and José António Lopes. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The metabolic syndrome (MS) and chronic kidney disease (CKD) have both become global public health problems, with increasing social and economic impact due to their high prevalence and remarkable impact on morbidity and mortality. The causality between MS and CKD, and its clinical implications, still does remain not completely understood. Moreover, prophylactic and therapeutic interventions do need to be properly investigated in this field. Herein, we critically review the existing clinical evidence that associates MS with renal disease and cardiovascular disease, as well as the associated pathophysiologic mechanisms and actual treatment options.