Review Article

Haemodynamic Monitoring Using Echocardiography in the Critically Ill: A Review

Table 2

Indications for echocardiography in acute care settings, evaluated using appropriate use scores (AUS).


Hypotension/haemodynamic instability of uncertain or suspected cardiac aetiologyA

Assessment of volume status in critically ill patientU

Acute chest pain with suspected MI, inconclusive ECG during painA

No chest pain but laboratory and/or other features indicative of MIA

Suspected complication of MIA

Respiratory failure/hypoxemia of uncertain aetiologyA

Respiratory failure/hypoxemia when noncardiac aetiology is already establishedU

To establish diagnosis of suspected PEI

To guide therapy of known acute PEA

Routine surveillance of prior PE, with normal RV function and PAPI

Reevaluation of known PE after therapy for change RV function and PAPA

Severe deceleration injury/chest trauma with suspected or possible pericardial effusion, valvular, or cardiac injuryA

Routine evaluation in mild chest trauma without ECG or biomarker changesI

I: inappropriate test for that indication (not generally acceptable and not a reasonable approach. Score 1–3 out of 9); U: uncertain for specific indication (may be acceptable and may be a reasonable approach. Also implies that further patient information/research needed to classify indication definitively. Score 4–6 out of 9); A: appropriate test for that indication. Test is generally acceptable and is a reasonable approach for the indication. Score 4–6 out of 9). MI: myocardial infarction, PE: pulmonary embolism, RV: right ventricle, PAP: pulmonary arterial pressure. Adapted from Douglas et al. [11].