Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2012, Article ID 470705, 6 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/470705
Review Article

Lifestyle Risk Factors and Cardiovascular Disease in Cubans and Cuban Americans

1Division of Cardiology, Duke University Medical Center, Durham, NC 27710, USA
2Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA 30322, USA
3Division of Cardiology, University Hospital V. I. Lenin, Holguin, Cuba
4Atlanta Vascular Research Foundation, Atlanta, GA 30084, USA
5Division of Cardiology, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA

Received 13 June 2011; Accepted 14 October 2011

Academic Editor: Donna Murnaghan

Copyright © 2012 Melissa S. Burroughs Peña et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. J. Mackay and G. Mensah, Atlas of Heart Disease and Stroke, World Health Organization, 2004.
  2. A. Rodriguez-Ojea, S. Jimenez, A. Berdasco, and M. Esquivel, “The nutrition transition in Cuba in the nineties: An overview,” Public Health Nutrition, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 129–133, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  3. M. Franco, P. Orduñez, B. Caballero et al., “Impact of energy intake, physical activity, and population-wide weight loss on cardiovascular disease and diabetes mortality in Cuba, 1980–2005,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 166, no. 12, pp. 1374–1380, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  4. S. Jiménez Acosta, C. Porrata, and M. Pérez, “The evolution of some food and nutrition indicators in Cuba starting from 1993,” Revista Cubana de Medicina Tropical, vol. 50, supplement, pp. 270–272, 1998. View at Google Scholar
  5. M. Franco, P. Orduñez, B. Caballero, and R. S. Cooper, “Obesity reduction and its possible consequences: What can we learn from Cuba's Special Period?” CMAJ, vol. 178, no. 8, pp. 1032–1034, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  6. C. Porrata, “Cubans' deadly diet: A wake-up call,” MEDICC Review, vol. 10, article 52, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  7. R. S. Cooper, P. Orduñez, M. D. I. Ferrer, J. L. B. Munoz, and A. Espinosa-Brito, “Cardiovascular disease and associated risk factors in Cuba: Prospects for prevention and control,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 96, no. 1, pp. 94–101, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  8. G. Marks, M. Garcia, and J. M. Solis, “III. Health risk behaviors of Hispanics in the United States: Findings from HHANES, 1982–84,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 80, supplement, pp. 20–26, 1990. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. H. D. Sesso, R. S. Paffenbarger, and I. M. Lee, “Physical activity and coronary heart disease in men: The Harvard Alumni Health Study,” Circulation, vol. 102, no. 9, pp. 975–980, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Armas Rojas, Y. Hernandez Alvarez, and A. Duenas Herrera, “Cardiovascular risk among older women in a Havana health area,” MEDICC Review, vol. 10, pp. 21–26, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  11. A. Rodrigues Barbosa, D. Balduino Munaretti, R. Da Silva Coqueiro, and A. Ferreti Borgatto, “Anthropometric indexes of obesity and hypertension in elderly from Cuba and Barbados,” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, vol. 15, no. 1, pp. 17–21, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. R. Da Silva Coqueiro, A. Rodrigues Barbosa, and A. Ferreti Borgatto, “Nutritional status, health conditions and socio-demographic factors in the elderly of Havana, Cuba: Data from SABE survey,” Journal of Nutrition, Health and Aging, vol. 14, no. 10, pp. 803–808, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. D. Rodriguez Leyva, “Cardiovascular Health in Cuba,” CV Network, vol. 5, pp. 12–13, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  14. G. Giraldo, “Obesity: A growing problem in Cuba,” MEDICC Review, 2006. View at Google Scholar
  15. M. Hernández-Triana, “Fitness vs. obesity in Cuban children: Battling the biases of gender and geography,” MEDICC Review, vol. 12, no. 2, article 48, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  16. R. P. Donahue, P. Zimmet, J. A. Bean et al., “Cigarette smoking, alcohol use, and physical activity in relation to serum leptin levels in a multiethnic population: The Miami community health study,” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 9, no. 2, pp. 108–113, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. PAHO, Cuba. Health in the Americas, PAHO, Washington, DC, AUC, 2007.
  18. R. Herrera-Valdes, M. Almaguer-Lopez, J. Chipi Cabrera et al., “Prevalence of obesity and its assocation with chronic kidney disease, hypertension, and diabetes mellitus. Isle of Youth Study (ISYS), Cuba,” MEDICC Review, vol. 10, pp. 14–20, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  19. M. E. Valencia, H. Aleman-Mateo, G. Salazar, and M. Hernandez Triana, “Body composition by hydrometry (deuterium oxide dilution) and bioelectrical impedance in subjects aged >60 y from rural regions of Cuba, Chile and Mexico,” International Journal of Obesity and Related Metabolic Disorder, vol. 27, pp. 848–855, 2003. View at Google Scholar
  20. “Nutritional situation in the Americas,” Epidemiologisches Bulletin, vol. 15, pp. 1–6, 1994.
  21. M. Esquivel and C. González, “Excess weight and adiposity in children and adolescents in Havana, Cuba: Prevalence and trends, 1972 to 2005,” MEDICC Review, vol. 12, no. 2, pp. 13–18, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. M. F. Najjar and R. J. Kuczmarski, “Anthropometric data and prevalence of overweight for Hispanics: 1982–84,” Vital and Health Statistics. Series 11, Data from the National Health Survey, no. 239, pp. 1–106, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. I. G. Pawson, R. Martorell, and F. E. Mendoza, “Prevalence of overweight and obesity in US Hispanic populations,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 53, no. 6, pp. 1522S–1528S, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. C. J. Crespo, C. M. Loria, and V. L. Burt, “Hypertension and other cardiovascular disease risk factors among Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey,” Public Health Reports, vol. 111, supplement 2, pp. 7–10, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. L. K. Khan, J. Sobal, and R. Martorell, “Acculturation, socioeconomic status, and obesity in Mexican Americans, Cuban Americans, and Puerto Ricans,” International Journal of Obesity, vol. 21, no. 2, pp. 91–96, 1997. View at Google Scholar
  26. M. Ciruzzi, H. Schargrodsky, P. Pramparo et al., “Attributable risks for acute myocardial infarction in four countries of Latin America,” Medicina, vol. 63, no. 6, pp. 697–703, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. L. G. Escobedo and P. L. Remington, “Birth cohort analysis of prevalence of cigarette smoking among Hispanics in the United States,” JAMA, vol. 261, no. 1, pp. 66–69, 1989. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. A. Hajat, J. B. Lucas, and R. Kington, “Health outcomes among Hispanic subgroups: data from the National Health Interview Survey, 1992–95,” Advance Data, no. 310, pp. 1–14, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. J. Pérez-Stable, A. Ramirez, R. Villareal et al., “Cigarette smoking behavior among US Latino men and women from different countries of origin,” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 91, no. 9, pp. 1424–1430, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. S. Malik, N. D. Wong, S. S. Franklin et al., “Impact of the metabolic syndrome on mortality from coronary heart disease, cardiovascular disease, and all causes in United States adults,” Circulation, vol. 110, no. 10, pp. 1245–1250, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  31. A. F. Morejón Giraldoni, M. Benet Rodríguez, E. Diez y Martínez de la Cotera, D. García Torres, V. Salas Rodríguez, and P. O. Ordúñez García, “Síndrome metabólico en un área de salud de Cienfuegos,” Segunda Medición de CARMEN. Finlay, vol. 1, pp. 6–14, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  32. D. C. Acosta, D. B. Corcho, and R. C. Mestre, “Mortalidad asociada al sindrome metabolico,” Revista Cubana de Medicina General Integral, vol. 23, no. 2, 2007. View at Google Scholar
  33. K. M. Flegal, T. M. Ezzati, M. I. Harris et al., “Prevalence of diabetes in Mexican Americans, Cubans, and Puerto Ricans from the Hispanic Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, 1982–1984,” Diabetes Care, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 628–638, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. C. A. S. Smith and E. Barnett, “Diabetes-related mortality among Mexican Americans, Puerto Ricans, and Cuban Americans in the United States,” Revista Panamericana de Salud Publica, vol. 18, no. 6, pp. 381–387, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. M. I. Harris, “Epidemiological correlates of NIDDM in Hispanics, whites, and blacks in the U.S. population,” Diabetes Care, vol. 14, no. 7, pp. 639–648, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. F. G. Huffman, G. P. Gomez, and G. G. Zarini, “Metabolic syndrome and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein in Cubans,” Ethnicity and Disease, vol. 19, no. 2, pp. 115–120, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. M. C. Madala, B. A. Franklin, A. Y. Chen et al., “Obesity and age of first non-ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 52, no. 12, pp. 979–985, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus
  38. M. Bazán Milián, L. Delgado Bereijo, and N. González Jiménez, “Morbimortality in heart and lung transplantation in Cuba: a 20-year follow-up,” Transplantation Proceedings, vol. 41, no. 8, pp. 3507–3509, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  39. Health CMoP, “Tendencia y situación actual de la enfermedad isquémica del corazón en Cuba,” in Temas de Estadísticas de Salud Havana, M. D. S. Pública and D. N. D. Estadística, Eds., Ministerio de Salud Pública, Dirección Nacional de Estadística, Havana, Cuba, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  40. Anuario Estadistico de Ministerio de Salud Publico de Cuba. Cuban Ministry of Public Health, 2008.
  41. R. A. Hummer, R. G. Rogers, S. H. Amir, D. Forbes, and W. P. Frisbie, “Adult mortality differentials among Hispanic subgroups and non-Hispanic whites,” Social Science Quarterly, vol. 81, no. 1, pp. 459–476, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. P. Ordúñez, A. Barceló, J. L. Bernal, A. Espinosa, L. C. Silva, and R. S. Cooper, “Risk factors associated with uncontrolled hypertension: Findings from the baseline CARMEN survey in Cienfuegos, Cuba,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 4, pp. 663–671, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed
  43. A. V. Chobanian, G. L. Bakris, H. R. Black et al., “The Seventh report of the joint national committee on prevention, detection, evaluation, and treatment of high blood pressure: the JNC 7 report,” JAMA, vol. 289, no. 19, pp. 2560–2572, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at PubMed · View at Scopus