Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2012, Article ID 645469, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2012/645469
Research Article

Long-Term Costs of Ischemic Stroke and Major Bleeding Events among Medicare Patients with Nonvalvular Atrial Fibrillation

1Center for Epidemiology and Database Analytics, United BioSource Corporation, 7101 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 600, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA
2Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc., 900 Ridgebury Road, Ridgefield, CT 06877, USA
3Economic Analysis and Solutions, United BioSource Corporation, 7101 Wisconsin Avenue, Suite 600, Bethesda, MD 20814, USA

Received 17 May 2012; Revised 30 July 2012; Accepted 1 August 2012

Academic Editor: Natig Gassanov

Copyright © 2012 Catherine J. Mercaldi et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. G. V. Naccarelli, H. Varker, J. Lin, and K. L. Schulman, “Increasing prevalence of atrial fibrillation and flutter in the United States,” American Journal of Cardiology, vol. 104, no. 11, pp. 1534–1539, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. W. B. Kannel and E. J. Benjamin, “Status of the epidemiology of atrial fibrillation,” Medical Clinics of North America, vol. 92, no. 1, pp. 17–40, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. P. A. Wolf, R. D. Abbott, and W. B. Kannel, “Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study,” Stroke, vol. 22, no. 8, pp. 983–988, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. D. E. Singer, G. W. Albers, J. E. Dalen et al., “Antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation: American College of Chest Physicians evidence-based clinical practice guidelines (8th edition),” Chest, vol. 133, no. 6, pp. 546–592, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. T. Darkow, A. M. Vanderplas, K. H. Lew, J. Kim, and O. Hauch, “Treatment patterns and real-world effectiveness of warfarin in nonvalvular atrial fibrillation within a managed care system,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 21, no. 10, pp. 1583–1594, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. K. Lakshminarayan, C. A. Solid, A. J. Collins, D. C. Anderson, and C. A. Herzog, “Atrial fibrillation and stroke in the general medicare population: a 10-year perspective (1992 to 2002),” Stroke, vol. 37, no. 8, pp. 1969–1974, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. L. Boulanger, J. Kim, M. Friedman, O. Hauch, T. Foster, and J. Menzin, “Patterns of use of antithrombotic therapy and quality of anticoagulation among patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation in clinical practice,” International Journal of Clinical Practice, vol. 60, no. 3, pp. 258–264, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. K. S. Coyne, C. Paramore, S. Grandy, M. Mercader, M. Reynolds, and P. Zimetbaum, “Assessing the direct costs of treating nonvalvular atrial fibrillation in the United States,” Value in Health, vol. 9, no. 5, pp. 348–356, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. S. J. Boccuzzi, J. Martin, J. Stephenson et al., “Retrospective study of total healthcare costs associated with chronic nonvalvular atrial fibrillation and the occurrence of a first transient ischemic attack, stroke or major bleed,” Current Medical Research and Opinion, vol. 25, no. 12, pp. 2853–2864, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. M. Engel-Nitz, S. D. Sander, C. Harley, G. G. Rey, and H. Shah, “Costs and outcomes of noncardioembolic ischemic stroke in a managed care population,” Vascular health and risk management, vol. 6, pp. 905–913, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. S. E. Wolowacz, M. Samuel, V. K. Brennan, J. G. Jasso-Mosqueda, and I. C. Van Gelder, “The cost of illness of atrial fibrillation: a systematic review of the recent literature,” Europace, vol. 13, pp. 1375–1385, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  12. P. S. J. Miller, F. L. Andersson, and L. Kalra, “Are cost benefits of anticoagulation for stroke prevention in atrial fibrillation underestimated?” Stroke, vol. 36, no. 2, pp. 360–366, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. T. J. Wang, J. M. Massaro, D. Levy et al., “A risk score for predicting stroke or death in individuals with new-onset atrial fibrillation in the community: the Framingham heart study,” Journal of the American Medical Association, vol. 290, no. 8, pp. 1049–1056, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. E. Birman-Deych, A. D. Waterman, Y. Yan, D. S. Nilasena, M. J. Radford, and B. F. Gage, “Accuracy of ICD-9-CM codes for identifying cardiovascular and stroke risk factors,” Medical Care, vol. 43, no. 5, pp. 480–485, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  15. P. M. Wahl, K. Rodgers, S. Schneeweiss et al., “Validation of claims-based diagnostic and procedure codes for cardiovascular and gastrointestinal serious adverse events in a commercially-insured population,” Pharmacoepidemiology and Drug Safety, vol. 19, no. 6, pp. 596–603, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. B. F. Gage, E. Birman-Deych, R. Kerzner, M. J. Radford, D. S. Nilasena, and M. W. Rich, “Incidence of intracranial hemorrhage in patients with atrial fibrillation who are prone to fall,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 118, no. 6, pp. 612–617, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. R. H. White, R. J. Beyth, H. Zhou, and P. S. Romano, “Major bleeding after hospitalization for deep-venous thrombosis,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 107, no. 5, pp. 414–424, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. K. Ming and P. R. Rosenbaum, “Substantial gains in bias reduction from matching with a variable number of controls,” Biometrics, vol. 56, no. 1, pp. 118–124, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. P. R. Rosenbaum, “Optimal matching for observational studies,” Journal of the American Statistical Association, vol. 84, pp. 1024–1032, 1989. View at Google Scholar
  20. O. S. Miettinen, “Individual matching with multiple controls in the case of all-or-none responses,” Biometrics, vol. 25, no. 2, pp. 339–355, 1969. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. H. K. Ury, “Efficiency of case control studies with multiple controls per case: continuous or dichotomous data,” Biometrics, vol. 31, no. 3, pp. 643–649, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. A. J. Camm, P. Kirchhof, G. Y. H. Lip et al., “Guidelines for the management of atrial fibrillation: the task force for the management of atrial fibrillation of the european society of cardiology (esc),” European Heart Journal, vol. 31, pp. 2369–2429, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  23. R. J. Beyth, L. M. Quinn, and C. S. Landefeld, “Prospective evaluation of an index for predicting the risk of major bleeding in outpatients treated with warfarin,” American Journal of Medicine, vol. 105, no. 2, pp. 91–99, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. B. F. Gage, Y. Yan, P. E. Milligan et al., “Clinical classification schemes for predicting hemorrhage: results from the National Registry of Atrial Fibrillation (NRAF),” American Heart Journal, vol. 151, no. 3, pp. 713–719, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. P. M. M. Kuijer, B. A. Hutten, M. H. Prins, and H. R. Büller, “Prediction of the risk of bleeding during anticoagulant treatment for venous thromboembolism,” Archives of Internal Medicine, vol. 159, no. 5, pp. 457–460, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. R. Pisters, D. A. Lane, R. Nieuwlaat, C. B. De Vos, H. J. G. M. Crijns, and G. Y. H. Lip, “A novel user-friendly score (HAS-BLED) to assess 1-year risk of major bleeding in patients with atrial fibrillation: the Euro heart survey,” Chest, vol. 138, no. 5, pp. 1093–1100, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. T. I. Shireman, J. D. Mahnken, P. A. Howard, T. F. Kresowik, Q. Hou, and E. F. Ellerbeck, “Development of a contemporary bleeding risk model for elderly warfarin recipients,” Chest, vol. 130, no. 5, pp. 1390–1396, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Y. H. Lip, L. Frison, J. L. Halperin, and D. A. Lane, “Comparative validation of a novel risk score for predicting bleeding risk in anticoagulated patients with atrial fibrillation: the HAS-BLED (hypertension, abnormal renal/liver function, stroke, bleeding history or predisposition, labile INR, elderly, drugs/alcohol concomitantly) score,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 57, no. 2, pp. 173–180, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. P. Diehr, D. Yanez, A. Ash, M. Hornbrook, and D. Y. Lin, “Methods for analyzing health care utilization and costs,” Annual Review of Public Health, vol. 20, pp. 125–144, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. C. J. Mercaldi, M. Ciarametaro, B. Hahn et al., “Cost efficiency of anticoagulation with warfarin to prevent stroke in medicare beneficiaries with nonvalvular atrial fibrillation,” Stroke, vol. 42, no. 1, pp. 112–118, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. J. Caro and K. F. Huybrechts, “Stroke treatment economic model (STEM): predicting long-term costs from functional status,” Stroke, vol. 30, no. 12, pp. 2574–2579, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. H. M. Dewey, A. G. Thrift, C. Mihalopoulos et al., “Lifetime cost of stroke subtypes in Australia: findings from the North East Melbourne Stroke Incidence Study (NEMESIS),” Stroke, vol. 34, no. 10, pp. 2502–2507, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. P. Youman, K. Wilson, F. Harraf, and L. Kalra, “The economic burden of stroke in the United Kingdom,” PharmacoEconomics, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 43–50, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus