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Cardiology Research and Practice
Volume 2014, Article ID 804751, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/804751
Research Article

Coronary Artery Disease and the Profile of Cardiovascular Risk Factors in South South Nigeria: A Clinical and Autopsy Study

1Department of Internal Medicine, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, PMB 1278, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria
2Department of Internal Medicine, University of Uyo Teaching Hospital, PMB 1136, Uyo, Akwa Ibom State, Nigeria
3Department of Chemical Pathology, University of Calabar Teaching Hospital, PMB 1278, Calabar, Cross River State, Nigeria

Received 2 January 2014; Accepted 5 February 2014; Published 10 March 2014

Academic Editor: Vicky A. Cameron

Copyright © 2014 Okon Ekwere Essien et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Introduction. Death from coronary artery disease (CAD) has been until recently considered rare in Nigeria. We present a report of a study of CAD with its predisposing cardiovascular (CVD) risk factors in South South Nigeria. Methods. We examined the autopsy reports of 747 coroner cases and 41 consecutive clinically diagnosed cases of ischemic heart disease seen in South South Nigeria. Results. CAD was diagnosed in 13 (1.6%) of 747 autopsies. They were predominantly males, urban residents, and of high social class with combination of CVD risk factors of hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, poor physical activities, and obesity. The mean serum cholesterol of the clinical subjects was  mmol/L and  mmol/L for angina and myocardial infarction, respectively, which was higher than the mean total cholesterol for locality of 3.1 mmol/L. Conclusion. CAD and its risk factors are contributing to mortality and morbidity in South South Nigeria. These risk factors include hypertension, alcohol use, diabetes mellitus, cigarette smoking, poor physical activity, and obesity. Nigerians in this locality with CAD have raised serum lipids.