Cardiology Research and Practice The latest articles from Hindawi © 2017 , Hindawi Limited . All rights reserved. The Relationship between Body Mass Index and the Severity of Coronary Artery Disease in Patients Referred for Coronary Angiography Sun, 23 Apr 2017 07:39:46 +0000 Background and Aim. Obesity is associated with an increased risk of cardiovascular disease and may be associated with more severe coronary artery disease (CAD); however, the relationship between body mass index [BMI (kg/m2)] and CAD severity is uncertain and debatable. The aim of this study was to examine the relationship between BMI and angiographic severity of CAD. Methods. Duke Jeopardy Score (DJS), a prognostic tool predictive of 1-year mortality in CAD, was assigned to angiographic data of patients ≥18 years of age (). Patients were grouped into 3 BMI categories: normal (18.5–24.9 kg/m2), overweight (25.0–29.9 kg/m2), and obese (≥30 kg/m2); and multivariable adjusted hazard ratios for 1-year all-cause and cardiac-specific mortality were calculated. Results. Cardiac risk factor prevalence (e.g., diabetes, hypertension, and hyperlipidemia) significantly increased with increasing BMI. Unadjusted all-cause and cardiac-specific 1-year mortality tended to rise with incremental increases in DJS, with the exception of DJS 6 (). After adjusting for potential confounders, no significant association of BMI and all-cause (HR 0.70, 95% CI .48–1.02) or cardiac-specific (HR 1.11, 95% CI .64–1.92) mortality was found. Conclusions. This study failed to detect an association of BMI with 1-year all-cause or cardiac-specific mortality after adjustment for potential confounding variables. Anne B. Gregory, Kendra K. Lester, Deborah M. Gregory, Laurie K. Twells, William K. Midodzi, and Neil J. Pearce Copyright © 2017 Anne B. Gregory et al. All rights reserved. The Prevalence and Awareness of Cardiovascular Diseases Risk Factors among the Lebanese Population: A Prospective Study Comparing Urban to Rural Populations Thu, 30 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Introduction. CVDs are largely driven by modifiable risk factors. This study sought to determine the awareness and prevalence of the modifiable CVDs risk factors among the Lebanese population. Methods. In a cross-sectional survey, 1000 participants aged ≥ 45 years were randomly selected from pharmacies and interviewed. The data was analyzed with SPSS version 21.0 software. Results. Differences between urban and rural areas include alcohol consumption (2.8% versus 1.7%; ), cardioprotective vegetable servings (6.1% versus 2.3%; ), sedentary hours per day (18.6% versus 15.1%; ), and hypertension (38.5% versus 25.4%; ). The prevalence of overweight and obesity (77.3% versus 75.2%; ), smoking (39.3% versus 43.3%; ), diabetes (25.4% versus 21.4%; ), and dyslipidemia (25 versus 21.2%) was reported. Measurements revealed 19.3% of undiagnosed hypertension (12.4% versus 22.4%, ), 61.7% of hypertension (59.8% versus 62.6%; ), and 7.9% of undiagnosed diabetes (6.6% versus 8.6%; ). The declared awareness of CVDs risk factors was highest for smoking (91.5% versus 89.7%; ) and lowest for diabetes (54.4 versus 55.7%; ). Conclusion. This study has shown a high prevalence of modifiable CVDs risk factors in the Lebanese population ≥ 45 years, among which hypertension is the most prominent. Iqbal Fahs, Zainab Khalife, Diana Malaeb, Mohammad Iskandarani, and Pascale Salameh Copyright © 2017 Iqbal Fahs et al. All rights reserved. The Personalization of Clopidogrel Antiplatelet Therapy: The Role of Integrative Pharmacogenetics and Pharmacometabolomics Tue, 21 Mar 2017 00:00:00 +0000 Dual antiplatelet therapy of aspirin and clopidogrel is pivotal for patients undergoing percutaneous coronary intervention. However, the variable platelets reactivity response to clopidogrel may lead to outcome failure and recurrence of cardiovascular events. Although many genetic and nongenetic factors are known, great portion of clopidogrel variable platelets reactivity remain unexplained which challenges the personalization of clopidogrel therapy. Current methods for clopidogrel personalization include CYP2C19 genotyping, pharmacokinetics, and platelets function testing. However, these methods lack precise prediction of clopidogrel outcome, often leading to insufficient prediction. Pharmacometabolomics which is an approach to identify novel biomarkers of drug response or toxicity in biofluids has been investigated to predict drug response. The advantage of pharmacometabolomics is that it does not only predict the response but also provide extensive information on the metabolic pathways implicated with the response. Integrating pharmacogenetics with pharmacometabolomics can give insight on unknown genetic and nongenetic factors associated with the response. This review aimed to review the literature on factors associated with the variable platelets reactivity response to clopidogrel, as well as appraising current methods for the personalization of clopidogrel therapy. We also aimed to review the literature on using pharmacometabolomics approach to predict drug response, as well as discussing the plausibility of using it to predict clopidogrel outcome. Arwa M. Amin, Lim Sheau Chin, Dzul Azri Mohamed Noor, Muhamad Ali SK Abdul Kader, Yuen Kah Hay, and Baharudin Ibrahim Copyright © 2017 Arwa M. Amin et al. All rights reserved. Aerobic Training Intensity for Improved Endothelial Function in Heart Failure Patients: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis Mon, 27 Feb 2017 14:05:49 +0000 Objective. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) is widely utilised to assess endothelial function and aerobic exercise improves FMD in heart failure patients. The aim of this meta-analysis is to quantify the effect of aerobic training intensity on FMD in patients with heart failure. Background. A large number of studies now exist that examine endothelial function in patients with heart failure. We sought to add to the current literature by quantifying the effect of the aerobic training intensity on endothelial function. Methods. We conducted database searches (PubMed, Embase, ProQuest, and Cochrane Trials Register to June 30, 2016) for exercise based rehabilitation trials in heart failure, using search terms exercise training, endothelial function, and flow-mediated dilation (FMD). Results. The 13 included studies provided a total of 458 participants, 264 in intervention groups, and 194 in nonexercising control groups. Both vigorous and moderate intensity aerobic training significantly improved FMD. Conclusion. Overall both vigorous and moderate aerobic exercise training improved FMD in patients with heart failure. M. J. Pearson and N. A. Smart Copyright © 2017 M. J. Pearson and N. A. Smart. All rights reserved. Avoiding the Learning Curve for Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Thu, 26 Jan 2017 14:16:21 +0000 Objectives. To evaluate whether collaboration between existing and new transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) programs could help reduce the number of cases needed to achieve optimal efficiency. Background. There is a well-documented learning curve for achieving procedural efficiency and safety in TAVR procedures. Methods. A multidisciplinary collaboration was established between the Minneapolis VA Medical Center (new program) and the University of Minnesota (established program since 2012, ) 1 year prior to launching the new program. Results. 269 patients treated with TAVR (50 treated in the first year at the new program). Mean age was 76 (±18) years and STS score was 6.8 (±6). Access included transfemoral (, 70%), transapical (, 16%), transaortic (, 4%), and subclavian (, 10%) types. Procedural efficiency (procedural time versus , ), device success (96% versus 87%, ), length of stay ( versus days, ), and safety (in hospital mortality 4% versus 6%, ) were similar between programs. We found no difference in outcome measures between the first and last 25 patients treated during the first year of the new program. Conclusions. Establishing a partnership with an established program can help mitigate the learning curve associated with these complex procedures. Sergey Gurevich, Ranjit John, Rosemary F. Kelly, Ganesh Raveendran, Gregory Helmer, Demetris Yannopoulos, Timinder Biring, Brett Oestreich, and Santiago Garcia Copyright © 2017 Sergey Gurevich et al. All rights reserved. Pediatric Heart Failure, Lagging, and Sagging of Care in Low Income Settings: A Hospital Based Review of Cases in Ethiopia Wed, 16 Nov 2016 08:41:54 +0000 Introduction. Causes of acute heart failure in children range from simple myocarditis complicating chest infection to complex structural heart diseases. Objective. To describe patterns, predictors of mortality, and management outcomes of acute heart failure in children. Methods. In retrospective review, between February 2012 and October 2015 at a tertiary center, 106 admitted cases were selected consecutively from discharge records. Data were extracted from patients chart and analyzed using SPSS software package. -test and statistical significance at value < 0.05 with 95% CI were used. Result. Acute heart failure accounted for 2.9% of the total pediatric admissions. The age ranged from 2 months up to 14 years with mean age of 8 years. Male to female ratio is 1 : 2.1. Rheumatic heart disease accounted for 53.7%; pneumonia, anemia, infective endocarditis, and recurrence of acute rheumatic fever were the main precipitating causes. Death occurred in 19% of cases. Younger age at presentation, low hemoglobin concentration, and undernutrition were associated with death with value of 0.00, 0.01, and 0.02, respectively. Conclusions and Recommendation. Pediatric heart failure in our settings is diagnosed mainly in older age groups and mostly precipitated due to preventable causes. Significant mortality is observed in relation to factors that can be preventable in children with underlying structural heart disease. Early suspicion and diagnosis of cases may reduce the observed high mortality. Solmon Gebremariam and Tamirat Moges Copyright © 2016 Solmon Gebremariam and Tamirat Moges. All rights reserved. Impact of Lifestyle Intervention on HDL-Induced eNOS Activation and Cholesterol Efflux Capacity in Obese Adolescent Mon, 14 Nov 2016 08:50:41 +0000 Background. Endothelial dysfunction occurs in obese children and adolescent and is regarded as a key step in the development of atherosclerosis. Important components for the development of endothelial dysfunction are reduced activity of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) and an increase in cholesterol deposition in the vessel wall, due to reduced reverse cholesterol transport (RCT) activity. High density lipoprotein (HDL) exhibits antiatherosclerotic properties including modulation of eNOS activity and cholesterol efflux capacity. Lifestyle intervention programs can modify endothelial dysfunction in obese adolescents, but their impact on HDL-mediated eNOS activation and RCT is unknown so far. Methods. Obese adolescents ( years, BMI > 35 kg/m2) where randomized either to an intervention group (IG, ; restricted diet and exercise) or to a usual care group (UC, ). At the beginning and after 10 months of treatment HDL-mediated eNOS phosphorylation and cholesterol efflux capacity were evaluated. Results. Ten months of treatment resulted in a substantial weight loss (−31%), an improvement of endothelial function, and an increase in HDL-mediated eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation and RCT. A correlation between change in eNOS-Ser1177 phosphorylation or RCT and change in endothelial function was noted. Conclusion. A structured lifestyle intervention program improves antiatherosclerotic HDL functions, thereby positively influencing endothelial function. Jenny Wesnigk, Luc Bruyndonckx, Vicky Y. Hoymans, Ann De Guchtenaere, Tina Fischer, Gerhard Schuler, Christiaan J. Vrints, and Volker Adams Copyright © 2016 Jenny Wesnigk et al. All rights reserved. Coronary Angiography Safety between Transradial and Transfemoral Access Thu, 03 Nov 2016 09:48:47 +0000 Background and Aim. The aim of study was to evaluate safety, feasibility, and procedural variables of transradial approach compared with transfemoral approach in a standard population of patients undergoing coronary catheterization as one of the major criticisms of the transradial approach is that it takes longer overall procedure and fluoroscopy time, thereby causing more radiation exposure. Method. Between January 2015 and December 2015, a total of 1,997 patients in LPS Institute of Cardiology, GSVM Medical College, Kanpur, UP, India, undergoing coronary catheterization were randomly assigned to the transradial or transfemoral approach. Result. Successful catheterization was achieved in 1045 of 1076 patients (97.1%) in the transradial group and in 918 of 921 patients (99.7%) in the transfemoral group (). Comparing the transradial and transfemoral approaches, fluoroscopy time ( versus  min; ), procedure time ( versus  min; ), contrast volume ( versus  mL; ), radiation dose as dose area product ( versus  Gycm2; ), and postprocedural rise of serum creatinine (% versus %; ) were not significantly different while vascular access site complications were significantly lower in transradial group than transfemoral group (3.9% versus 7.6%; ). Conclusion. The present study shows that transradial access for coronary angiography is safe among patients compared to transfemoral access with lower rate of local vascular complications. Santosh Kumar Sinha, Vikas Mishra, Nasar Afdaali, Mukesh Jitendra Jha, Ashutosh Kumar, Mohammad Asif, Ramesh Thakur, and Chandra Mohan Varma Copyright © 2016 Santosh Kumar Sinha et al. All rights reserved. Prevalence of Hepatitis C Virus Seropositivity and Its Impact on Coronary Artery Disease among Egyptian Patients Referred for Coronary Angiography Wed, 02 Nov 2016 12:13:09 +0000 Background. We tested the prevalence and impact of HCV seropositivity among Egyptian patients referred for coronary angiography. Subjects and Methods. This cross-sectional study was conducted in Zagazig University hospitals including 509 patients scheduled for elective coronary angiography between June 2013 and June 2014. By taking full history on admission, laboratory workup including HCV Ab, echocardiography study, and coronary angiography, we calculated the mean number of coronary artery lesions and the mean number of affected coronary artery vessels for all patients. The severity of the coronary lesions was estimated using the Gensini score. Results. HCV seropositive patients referred for coronary angiography were about 30.3% (which is greater than the prevalence of HCV seropositivity among general population in Egypt), patients proved to have CAD who are HCV antibody positive had more severe coronary lesions than in seronegative one (), and patients proved to have CAD who are HCV antibody positive had comparable prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors as seronegative patients except for diabetes and hypertension which are more prevalent in seronegative patients (). Conclusion. Prevalence of HCV antibody positive patients referred for coronary angiography was about 30.3%, and CAD patients who are HCV antibody positive had more severe coronary lesions and less prevalence of diabetes and hypertension than HCV antibody negative. Ragab Abd El Salam, Baher Nabil, Marawan Saber, Hany A. AbdelWahab, and Tamer Saber Copyright © 2016 Ragab Abd El Salam et al. All rights reserved. Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire Utility in Prediction of 30-Day Readmission Rate in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure Sun, 30 Oct 2016 07:28:14 +0000 Background. Heart failure (HF) is one of the most common diagnoses associated with hospital readmission. We designed this prospective study to evaluate whether Kansas City Cardiomyopathy Questionnaire (KCCQ) score is associated with 30-day readmission in patients hospitalized with decompensated HF. Methods and Results. We enrolled 240 patients who met the study criteria. Forty-eight (20%) patients were readmitted for decompensated HF within thirty days of hospital discharge, and 192 (80%) patients were not readmitted. Compared to readmitted patients, nonreadmitted patients had a higher average KCCQ score (40.8 versus 32.6, P = 0.019) before discharge. Multivariate analyses showed that a high KCCQ score was associated with low HF readmission rate (adjusted OR = 0.566, P = 0.022). The c-statistic for the base model (age + gender) was 0.617. The combination of home medication and lab tests on the base model resulted in an integrated discrimination improvement (IDI) increase of 3.9%. On that basis, the KCQQ further increased IDI of 2.7%. Conclusions. The KCCQ score determined before hospital discharge was significantly associated with 30-day readmission rate in patients with HF, which may provide a clinically useful measure and could significantly improve readmission prediction reliability when combined with other clinical components. Shengchuan Dai, Manoucher Manoucheri, Junhong Gui, Xiang Zhu, Divyanshu Malhotra, Shenjing Li, Jason D’souza, Fnu Virkram, Aditya Chada, and Haibing Jiang Copyright © 2016 Shengchuan Dai et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Body Mass Index on Short-Term Outcomes in Patients Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention in Newfoundland and Labrador, Canada Wed, 07 Sep 2016 11:45:50 +0000 Background and Aim. Obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2) is associated with advanced cardiovascular disease requiring procedures such as percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI). Studies report better outcomes in obese patients having these procedures but results are conflicting or inconsistent. Newfoundland and Labrador (NL) has the highest rate of obesity in Canada. The aim of the study was to examine the relationship between BMI and vascular and nonvascular complications in patients undergoing PCI in NL. Methods. We studied 6473 patients identified in the APPROACH-NL database who underwent PCI from May 2006 to December 2013. BMI categories included normal, 18.5 ≤ BMI < 25.0 (); overweight, 25.0 ≤ BMI < 30 (); and obese, BMI ≥ 30.0 (). Results. Patients with obesity were younger and had a higher incidence of diabetes, hypertension, and family history of cardiac disease. Obese patients experienced less vascular complications (normal, overweight, and obese: 8.2%, 7.2%, and 5.3%, ). No significant differences were observed for in-lab (4.0%, 3.3%, and 3.1%, ) or postprocedural (1.0%, 0.8%, and 0.9%, ) nonvascular complications. After adjusting for covariates, BMI was not a significant factor associated with adverse outcomes. Conclusion. Overweight and obesity were not independent correlates of short-term vascular and nonvascular complications among patients undergoing PCI. Anne B. Gregory, Kendra K. Lester, Deborah M. Gregory, Laurie K. Twells, William K. Midodzi, and Neil J. Pearce Copyright © 2016 Anne B. Gregory et al. All rights reserved. Association between Stable Coronary Artery Disease and In Vivo Thrombin Generation Thu, 11 Aug 2016 06:40:32 +0000 Background. Thrombin has been implicated as a key molecule in atherosclerotic progression. Clinical evidence shows that thrombin generation is enhanced in atherosclerosis, but its role as a risk factor for coronary atherosclerotic burden has not been proven in coronary artery disease (CAD) stable patients. Objectives. To evaluate the association between TAT levels and homocysteine levels and the presence of coronary artery disease diagnosed by coronary angiography in patients with stable CAD. Methods and Results. We included 95 stable patients admitted to the Haemodynamics Department, including 63 patients with significant CAD and 32 patients without. We measured the thrombin-antithrombin complex (TAT) and homocysteine concentrations in all the patients. The CAD patients exhibited higher concentrations of TAT (40.76 μg/L versus 20.81 μg/L, ) and homocysteine (11.36 μmol/L versus 8.81 μmol/L, ) compared to the patients without significant CAD. Specifically, in patients with CAD+ the level of TAT level was associated with the severity of CAD being 36.17 ± 24.48 μg/L in the patients with bivascular obstruction and 42.77 ± 31.81 μg/L in trivascular coronary obstruction, . Conclusions. The level of in vivo thrombin generation, quantified as TAT complexes, is associated with the presence and severity of CAD assessed by coronary angiography in stable CAD patients. Benjamin Valente-Acosta, Manuel Alfonso Baños-González, Marco Antonio Peña-Duque, Marco Antonio Martínez-Ríos, Leslie Quintanar-Trejo, Gad Aptilon-Duque, Mirthala Flores-García, David Cruz-Robles, Guillermo Cardoso-Saldaña, and Aurora de la Peña-Díaz Copyright © 2016 Benjamin Valente-Acosta et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Rosuvastatin Treatment on HDL-Induced PKC-βII and eNOS Phosphorylation in Endothelial Cells and Its Relation to Flow-Mediated Dilatation in Patients with Chronic Heart Failure Tue, 02 Aug 2016 12:46:11 +0000 Background. Endothelial function is impaired in chronic heart failure (CHF). Statins upregulate endothelial NO synthase (eNOS) and improve endothelial function. Recent studies demonstrated that HDL stimulates NO production due to eNOS phosphorylation at Ser1177, dephosphorylation at Thr495, and diminished phosphorylation of PKC-βII at Ser660. The aim of this study was to elucidate the impact of rosuvastatin on HDL mediated eNOS and PKC-βII phosphorylation and its relation to endothelial function. Methods. 18 CHF patients were randomized to 12 weeks of rosuvastatin or placebo. At baseline, 12 weeks, and 4 weeks after treatment cessation we determined lipid levels and isolated HDL. Human aortic endothelial cells (HAEC) were incubated with isolated HDL and phosphorylation of eNOS and PKC-βII was evaluated. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) was measured at the radial artery. Results. Rosuvastatin improved FMD significantly. This effect was blunted after treatment cessation. LDL plasma levels were reduced after rosuvastatin treatment whereas drug withdrawal resulted in significant increase. HDL levels remained unaffected. Incubation of HAEC with HDL had no impact on phosphorylation of eNOS or PKC-βII. Conclusion. HDL mediated eNOS and PKC-βII phosphorylation levels in endothelial cells do not change with rosuvastatin in CHF patients and do not mediate the marked improvement in endothelial function. Ephraim B. Winzer, Pauline Gaida, Robert Höllriegel, Tina Fischer, Axel Linke, Gerhard Schuler, Volker Adams, and Sandra Erbs Copyright © 2016 Ephraim B. Winzer et al. All rights reserved. Cardiac Arrhythmias: Update on Mechanisms and Clinical Managements Sun, 31 Jul 2016 14:10:50 +0000 Yi-Gang Li, David G. Benditt, Thomas Klingenheben, Kai Hu, and Dali Feng Copyright © 2016 Yi-Gang Li et al. All rights reserved. The Concordance between Myocardial Perfusion Imaging and Coronary Angiography in Detecting Coronary Artery Disease: A Retrospective Study in a Tertiary Cardiac Center at King Abdullah Medical City Mon, 27 Jun 2016 14:25:26 +0000 Background. Coronary artery disease (CAD) is considered as the leading cause of the cardiovascular fatalities worldwide. CAD is diagnosed by many modalities of imaging such as myocardial perfusion imaging (MPI) and coronary angiography (CAG). Methods. A retrospective cross-sectional study was conducted that included all patients referred to the KAMC (King Abdullah Medical City) nuclear cardiology lab from its opening until the end of May 2014 (a period of 17 months). A total of 228 patient reports with a history of conducting either CAG or MPI or both were used in this study and statistically analyzed. Results. An analysis of the MPI results revealed that 78.5% of the samples were abnormal. On the other hand, 26.75% of the samples revealed that they were subjected to CAG and MPI. There was a significant and fair agreement between MPI and CAG by using all the agreement coefficients (kappa = 0.237, phi = 0.310, and value = 0.043). The sensitivity, specificity, and accuracy of MPI with reference to CAG were 97.8%, 20%, and 78.69%, respectively. In addition, positive predictive and negative predictive values were 78.95% and 75%, respectively. Conclusion. In a tertiary referral center, there was a significant agreement between MPI and CAG and a high accuracy of MPI. MPI was a noninvasive diagnostic test that could be used as a gatekeeper for CAG. Fatma Aboul-Enein, Majed O. Aljuaid, Hail T. Alharthi, Abdulkarim M. Almudhhi, and Mohammad A. Alzahrani Copyright © 2016 Fatma Aboul-Enein et al. All rights reserved. Myocardial Viability: From Proof of Concept to Clinical Practice Sun, 29 May 2016 12:29:34 +0000 Ischaemic left ventricular (LV) dysfunction can arise from myocardial stunning, hibernation, or necrosis. Imaging modalities have become front-line methods in the assessment of viable myocardial tissue, with the aim to stratify patients into optimal treatment pathways. Initial studies, although favorable, lacked sufficient power and sample size to provide conclusive outcomes of viability assessment. Recent trials, including the STICH and HEART studies, have failed to confer prognostic benefits of revascularisation therapy over standard medical management in ischaemic cardiomyopathy. In lieu of these recent findings, assessment of myocardial viability therefore should not be the sole factor for therapy choice. Optimization of medical therapy is paramount, and physicians should feel comfortable in deferring coronary revascularisation in patients with coronary artery disease with reduced LV systolic function. Newer trials are currently underway and will hopefully provide a more complete understanding of the pathos and management of ischaemic cardiomyopathy. Aditya Bhat, Gary C. H. Gan, Timothy C. Tan, Chijen Hsu, and Alan Robert Denniss Copyright © 2016 Aditya Bhat et al. All rights reserved. Frequency of Specific Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors among Cameroonian Patients on Dialysis: The Cases of Anaemia, Inflammation, Phosphate, and Calcium Sun, 22 May 2016 08:15:19 +0000 Specific cardiovascular risk factors are known to contribute to increasing cardiovascular mortality in patients with chronic renal disease. However, little is known about their distribution in our population. This study aimed at determining the prevalence of anaemia, inflammation, and phosphocalcium disorders in Cameroonian patients on dialysis. Thirty-five participants with stage V chronic kidney disease (defined by glomerular filtration rate, GFR < 15 mL/1.73 m3) of age at least 20 years on haemodialysis were randomly recruited. A control group composed of persons without a history of renal or cardiovascular disease was also recruited. Haemoglobin concentration, serum phosphate concentration, serum calcium concentration, and CRP status as a marker of inflammation were determined for all participants. Anaemia, phosphocalcium metabolic disorders, and a positive CRP result among haemodialysed patients were estimated at 94.3%, 61.6%, and 77.1%, respectively. Anaemia was diagnosed in all female patients compared to 92% in males, while a positive CRP result was recorded in 90% of females and 72% of males. No significant differences were observed on the distribution of studied specific cardiovascular risk factors with duration of dialysis. Among the factors studied, anaemia was the most encountered. Olivier Pancha Mbouemboue, Olivier Djile Danbe, Marcel Tangyi Tamanji, and Jacques Olivier Ngoufack Copyright © 2016 Olivier Pancha Mbouemboue et al. All rights reserved. Epicardial Fat: Physiological, Pathological, and Therapeutic Implications Tue, 26 Apr 2016 16:17:55 +0000 Epicardial fat is closely related to blood supply vessels, both anatomically and functionally, which is why any change in this adipose tissue’s behavior is considered a potential risk factor for cardiovascular disease development. When proinflammatory adipokines are released from the epicardial fat, this can lead to a decrease in insulin sensitivity, low adiponectin production, and an increased proliferation of vascular smooth muscle cells. These adipokines move from one compartment to another by either transcellular passing or diffusion, thus having the ability to regulate cardiac muscle activity, a phenomenon called vasocrine regulation. The participation of these adipokines generates a state of persistent vasoconstriction, increased stiffness, and weakening of the coronary wall, consequently contributing to the formation of atherosclerotic plaques. Therefore, epicardial adipose tissue thickening should be considered a risk factor in the development of cardiovascular disease, a potential therapeutic target for cardiovascular pathology and a molecular point of contact for “endocrine-cardiology.” Juan Salazar, Eliana Luzardo, José Carlos Mejías, Joselyn Rojas, Antonio Ferreira, José Ramón Rivas-Ríos, and Valmore Bermúdez Copyright © 2016 Juan Salazar et al. All rights reserved. Incidence and Factors Predicting Skin Burns at the Site of Indifferent Electrode during Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation of Cardiac Arrhythmias Sun, 24 Apr 2016 09:35:20 +0000 Radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFA) has become a mainstay for treatment of cardiac arrhythmias. Skin burns at the site of an indifferent electrode patch have been a rare, serious, and likely an underreported complication of RFA. The purpose of this study was to determine the incidence of skin burns in cardiac RFA procedures performed at one institution. Also, we wanted to determine the factors predicting skin burns after cardiac RFA procedures at the indifferent electrode skin pad site. Methods. A retrospective case control study was performed to compare the characteristics in patients who developed skin burns in a 2-year period. Results. Incidence of significant skin burns after RFA was 0.28% (6/2167). Four of the six patients were female and all were Caucasians. Four controls for every case were age and sex matched. Burn patients had significantly higher BMI, procedure time, and postprocedure pain, relative to control subjects (p < 0.05, one-tailed testing). No one in either group had evidence of dispersive pad malattachment. Conclusions. Our results indicate that burn patients had higher BMI and longer procedure times compared to control subjects. These findings warrant further larger studies on this topic. Hussain Ibrahim, Bohuslav Finta, and Jubran Rind Copyright © 2016 Hussain Ibrahim et al. All rights reserved. The Modification Effect of Influenza Vaccine on Prognostic Indicators for Cardiovascular Events after Acute Coronary Syndrome: Observations from an Influenza Vaccination Trial Wed, 20 Apr 2016 13:07:29 +0000 Introduction. The prognosis of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) patients has been improved with several treatments such as antithrombotics, beta-blockers, and angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors (ACEI) as well as coronary revascularization. Influenza vaccination has been shown to reduce adverse outcomes in ACS, but no information exists regarding the interaction of other treatments. Methods. This study included 439 ACS patients from Phrommintikul et al. A single dose of inactivated influenza vaccine was given by intramuscular injection in the vaccination group. The cardiovascular outcomes were described as major cardiovascular events (MACEs) which included mortality, hospitalization due to ACS, and hospitalization due to heart failure (HF). The stratified and multivariable Cox’s regression analysis was performed. Results. The stratified Cox’s analysis by influenza vaccination for each cardiovascular outcome and discrimination of hazard ratios showed that beta-blockers had an interaction with influenza vaccination. Moreover, the multivariable hazard ratios disclosed that influenza vaccine is associated with a significant reduction of hospitalization due to HF in patients who received beta-blockers (HR = 0.05, 95% CI = 0.004–0.71, ), after being adjusted for prognostic indicators (sex, dyslipidemia, serum creatinine, and left ventricular ejection fraction). Conclusions. The influenza vaccine was shown to significantly modify the effect of beta-blockers in ACS patients and to reduce the hospitalization due to HF. However, further study of a larger population and benefits to HF patients should be investigated. Apirak Sribhutorn, Arintaya Phrommintikul, Wanwarang Wongcharoen, Usa Chaikledkaew, Suntara Eakanunkul, and Apichard Sukonthasarn Copyright © 2016 Apirak Sribhutorn et al. All rights reserved. Progenitor Hematopoietic Cells Implantation Improves Functional Capacity of End Stage Coronary Artery Disease Patients with Advanced Heart Failure Mon, 11 Apr 2016 13:31:18 +0000 Background. Proangiogenic Hematopoietic Cells (PHC) which comprise diverse mixture of cell types are able to secrete proangiogenic factors and interesting candidate for cell therapy. The aim of this study was to seek for benefit in implantation of PHC on functional improvement in end stage coronary artery disease patients with advanced heart failure. Methods. Patients with symptomatic heart failure despite guideline directed medical therapy and LVEF less than 35% were included. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were isolated, cultivated for 5 days, and then harvested. Flow cytometry and cell surface markers were used to characterize PHC. The PHC were delivered retrogradely via sinus coronarius. Echocardiography, myocardial perfusion, and clinical and functional data were analyzed up to 1-year observation. Results. Of 30 patients ( yo) preimplant NT proBNP level is  pmol/L. Harvested cells characterized with CD133, CD34, CD45, and KDR showed , , , and %, respectively. LVEF was improved ( versus , ) during short and long term observation. Myocardial perfusion significantly improved 6 months after treatment. NYHA Class and six-minute walk test are improved during short term and long term follow-up. Conclusion. Expanded peripheral blood PHC implantation using retrograde delivery approach improved LV systolic function, myocardial perfusion, and functional capacity. Yoga Yuniadi, Yuyus Kusnadi, Lakshmi Sandhow, Rendra Erika, Dicky A. Hanafy, Caroline Sardjono, R. W. M. Kaligis, Manoefris Kasim, and Ganesja M. Harimurti Copyright © 2016 Yoga Yuniadi et al. All rights reserved. Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes Afford New Opportunities in Inherited Cardiovascular Disease Modeling Sun, 27 Mar 2016 10:11:21 +0000 Fundamental studies of molecular and cellular mechanisms of cardiovascular disease pathogenesis are required to create more effective and safer methods of their therapy. The studies can be carried out only when model systems that fully recapitulate pathological phenotype seen in patients are used. Application of laboratory animals for cardiovascular disease modeling is limited because of physiological differences with humans. Since discovery of induced pluripotency generating induced pluripotent stem cells has become a breakthrough technology in human disease modeling. In this review, we discuss a progress that has been made in modeling inherited arrhythmias and cardiomyopathies, studying molecular mechanisms of the diseases, and searching for and testing drug compounds using patient-specific induced pluripotent stem cell-derived cardiomyocytes. Daniel R. Bayzigitov, Sergey P. Medvedev, Elena V. Dementyeva, Sevda A. Bayramova, Evgeny A. Pokushalov, Alexander M. Karaskov, and Suren M. Zakian Copyright © 2016 Daniel R. Bayzigitov et al. All rights reserved. Obesity Related Coronary Microvascular Dysfunction: From Basic to Clinical Practice Tue, 22 Mar 2016 12:42:14 +0000 Obesity related coronary microvascular disease is a medical entity which is not yet fully elucidated. The pathophysiological basis of coronary microcirculatory dysfunction consists of a heterogeneous group of disorders with individual morphologic/functional/clinical presentation and prognosis. Coronary microcirculatory changes include mechanisms connected with vascular dysfunction, as well as extravascular and vasostructural changes in responses to neural, mechanical, and metabolic factors. Cardiometabolic changes that include obesity, dyslipidemia, diabetes mellitus type II, and hypertension are associated with atherosclerosis of epicardial coronary arteries and/or microvascular coronary dysfunction, with incompletely understood underlying mechanisms. In obesity, microvascular disease is mediated via adipokines/cytokines causing chronic, subclinical inflammation with (a) reduced NO-mediated dilatation, (b) changed endothelial- and smooth muscle-dependent vasoregulating mechanisms, (c) altered vasomotor control with increased sympathetic activity, and (d) obesity related hypertension with cardiomyocytes hypertrophy and impaired cardiac vascular adaptation to metabolic needs. From a clinical point of view it can present itself in acute or chronic form with different prognosis, as a practice problem for real-life diagnosis and treatment. K. Selthofer-Relatić, I. Bošnjak, and A. Kibel Copyright © 2016 K. Selthofer-Relatić et al. All rights reserved. The Effect of Adoption of an Electronic Health Record on Duplicate Testing Mon, 21 Mar 2016 09:14:29 +0000 Background. The electronic health record (EHR) has been promoted as a tool to improve quality of patient care, reduce costs, and improve efficiency. There is little data to confirm that the use of EHR has reduced duplicate testing. We sought to evaluate the rate of performance of repeat transthoracic echocardiograms before and after the adoption of EHR. Methods. We retrospectively examined the rates of repeat echocardiograms performed before and after the implementation of an EHR system. Results. The baseline rate of repeat testing before EHR was 4.6% at six months and 7.6% at twelve months. In the first year following implementation of EHR, 6.6% of patients underwent a repeat study within 6 months, and 12.9% within twelve months. In the most recent year of EHR usage, 5.7% of patients underwent repeat echocardiography at six months and 11.9% within twelve months. All rates of duplicate testing were significantly higher than their respective pre-EHR rates ( for all). Conclusion. Our study failed to demonstrate a reduction in the rate of duplicate echocardiography testing after the implementation of an EHR system. We feel that this data, combined with other recent analyses, should promote a more rigorous assessment of the initial claims of the benefits associated with EHR implementation. Todd C. Kerwin, Harmony Leighton, Kunal Buch, Azriel Avezbadalov, and Hormoz Kianfar Copyright © 2016 Todd C. Kerwin et al. All rights reserved. Comparison between First- and Second-Generation Cryoballoon for Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation Ablation Wed, 16 Mar 2016 08:35:57 +0000 Introduction. Cryoballoon (CB) ablation has emerged as a novel treatment for pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) for patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The second-generation Arctic Front Advance (ADV) was redesigned with technical modifications aiming at procedural and outcome improvements. We aimed to compare the efficacy of the two different technologies over a long-term follow-up. Methods. A total of 120 patients with PAF were enrolled. Sixty patients underwent PVI using the first-generation CB and 60 patients with the ADV catheter. All patients were evaluated over a follow-up period of 2 years. Results. There were no significant differences between the two groups of patients. Procedures performed with the first-generation CB showed longer fluoroscopy time ( versus  min, resp.; ) and longer procedure times as well ( versus  min, resp.; ). The overall long-term success was significantly different between the two groups (68.3 versus 86.7%, resp.; ). No differences were found in the lesion areas of left and right PV between the two groups (resp., and ). There were no significant differences in procedural-related complications. Conclusion. The ADV catheter compared to the first-generation balloon allows obtaining a significantly higher success rate after a single PVI procedure during the long-term follow-up. Fluoroscopy and procedural times were significantly shortened using the ADV catheter. Sergio Conti, Massimo Moltrasio, Gaetano Fassini, Fabrizio Tundo, Stefania Riva, Antonio Dello Russo, Michela Casella, Benedetta Majocchi, Vittoria Marino, Pasquale De Iuliis, Valentina Catto, Salvatore Pala, and Claudio Tondo Copyright © 2016 Sergio Conti et al. All rights reserved. Correlation between Doppler, Manual Morphometry, and Histopathology Based Morphometry of Radial Artery as a Conduit in Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Mon, 07 Mar 2016 12:52:35 +0000 Background. Long-term graft patency is the major factor impacting survival after coronary artery bypass grafting. Arteries are superior in this regard. Radial artery is considered the second best conduit after internal mammary artery. Several studies have shown excellent radial artery patency. We evaluated the morphologic characteristics of radial artery by three modalities, (i) preoperative Doppler ultrasound, (ii) intraoperative manual morphometry, and (iii) postoperative histology-based morphometry, and compared these with the aim of validating Doppler as a noninvasive test of choice for preoperative assessment of radial artery. Methods. This was a prospective study involving 100 patients undergoing coronary artery bypass grafting in which radial artery was used. The radial artery was assessed using preoperative Doppler ultrasound studies, intraoperative morphometry, and postoperative histopathology and morphometry. The morphometric measurements included (i) luminal diameter, (ii) intimal and medial thickness, and (iii) intima-media thickness ratio. Results. Using Bland-Altman plots, there was a 95% limit of agreement between the preoperative Doppler measurements and the postoperative histopathology and morphometry. Conclusion. Doppler ultrasound is an accurate screening test for evaluation of radial artery, in terms of intimal/medial thickness and luminal diameter as a conduit in coronary artery bypass grafting and has been validated by both morphometric and histopathology based studies. Om Prakash Yadava, Vinod Sharma, Arvind Prakash, Vikas Ahlawat, Anirban Kundu, Bikram K. Mohanty, Rekha Mishra, and Amit K. Dinda Copyright © 2016 Om Prakash Yadava et al. All rights reserved. Depression and Anxiety following Coronary Artery Bypass Graft: Current Indian Scenario Mon, 29 Feb 2016 16:46:02 +0000 Epidemiological studies have shown a high prevalence of coronary artery disease among the Indian Population. Due to increasing availability and affordability of tertiary care in many parts of India, carefully selected patients undergo coronary artery bypass surgery to improve cardiac function. However, the procedure is commonly associated with depression and anxiety which can adversely affect overall prognosis. The objective of this review is to highlight early identifiable symptoms of depression and anxiety following coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) in Indian context so as to facilitate prompt intervention for better outcome. The current review was able to establish firm evidence in support of screening for depression and anxiety following CABG. Management of depression and anxiety following CABG is briefly reviewed. Suprakash Chaudhury, Rajiv Saini, Ajay Kumar Bakhla, and Jaswinder Singh Copyright © 2016 Suprakash Chaudhury et al. All rights reserved. Impact of Additional Transthoracic Electrical Cardioversion on Cardiac Function and Atrial Fibrillation Recurrence in Patients with Persistent Atrial Fibrillation Who Underwent Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation Sun, 28 Feb 2016 13:58:09 +0000 Backgrounds and Objective. During the procession of radiofrequency catheter ablation (RFCA) in persistent atrial fibrillation (AF), transthoracic electrical cardioversion (ECV) is required to terminate AF. The purpose of this study was to determine the impact of additional ECV on cardiac function and recurrence of AF. Methods and Results. Persistent AF patients received extensive encircling pulmonary vein isolation (PVI) and additional line ablation. Patients were divided into two groups based on whether they need transthoracic electrical cardioversion to terminate AF: electrical cardioversion (ECV group) and nonelectrical cardioversion (NECV group). Among 111 subjects, 35 patients were returned to sinus rhythm after ablation by ECV (ECV group) and 76 patients had AF termination after the ablation processions (NECV group). During the 12-month follow-ups, the recurrence ratio of patients was comparable in ECV group (15/35) and NECV group (34/76) (44.14% versus 44.74%, ). Although left atrial diameters (LAD) decreased significantly in both groups, there were no significant differences in LAD and left ventricular cardiac function between ECV group and NECV group. Conclusions. This study revealed that ECV has no significant impact on the maintenance of SR and the recovery of cardiac function. Therefore, ECV could be applied safely to recover SR during the procedure of catheter ablation of persistent atrial fibrillation. Deguo Wang, Fengxiang Zhang, and Ancai Wang Copyright © 2016 Deguo Wang et al. All rights reserved. Role of Neutrophil Gelatinase-Associated Lipocalin in the Diagnosis and Early Treatment of Acute Kidney Injury in a Case Series of Patients with Acute Decompensated Heart Failure: A Case Series Sun, 28 Feb 2016 07:58:53 +0000 Patients with acute decompensated heart failure (ADHF) frequently develop worsening in renal function until Acute Kidney Injury (AKI). The use of kidney injury biomarkers could be useful in the early diagnosis of AKI. In the present study, the role of the neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (NGAL), compared to the standard creatinine, in ADHF patients, was analyzed to evaluate if an early treatment could affect the outcome. A case series of 24 ADHF patients was enrolled and patients randomly divided in two groups (Group A and Group B). In Group A, NGAL, creatinine, and eGFR were measured, while in Group B, creatinine and eGFR alone were measured. NGAL was measured by turbidimetric immunoassay and creatinine using an enzymatic spectrophotometric method. In presence of AKI, creatinine increase and eGFR decrease were significantly lower in Group A than in Group B, whereas in absence of AKI the difference between the two groups was not significant. Hospitalization stay was significantly lower in Group A (receiving early treatment based on NGAL) than in Group B. In ADHF patients, plasma NGAL in combination with creatinine was superior to the standard creatinine in the diagnosis and early treatment of AKI with a better outcome and a decreased hospital stay. Silvia Angeletti, Marta Fogolari, Davide Morolla, Federico Capone, Sebastiano Costantino, Silvia Spoto, Marina De Cesaris, Alessandra Lo Presti, Massimo Ciccozzi, and Giordano Dicuonzo Copyright © 2016 Silvia Angeletti et al. All rights reserved. Comparison of the Postprocedural Quality of Life between Coronary Artery Bypass Graft Surgery and Percutaneous Coronary Intervention: A Systematic Review Thu, 18 Feb 2016 15:46:34 +0000 The treatment of choice between coronary artery bypass graft surgery (CABG) and percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) has remained unclear. Considering quality of life (QOL) increases life expectancy, we believe QOL should be important in determining the optimum treatment. Thus the objective of this review was to illustrate the comparative effects of CABG and PCI on postprocedural QOL. Methods. We searched PubMed (Medline) and Embase from inception of the databases to May 2014 using “PCI versus CABG quality of life”, “Percutaneous Coronary intervention versus Coronary artery bypass graft surgery Quality of life”, “PCI versus CABG health status”, “Angioplasty versus CABG”, “Percutaneous coronary intervention versus coronary artery bypass surgery health status”, and different combinations of the above terms. 447 articles were found. After applying strict exclusion criteria, we included 13 studies in this review. Results. From the 9 studies that compared QOL scores at 6 months after procedure, 5 studies reported CABG to be superior. From the 10 studies that compared QOL among patients at 1 year after procedure, 9 reported CABG to be superior. Conclusion. It can be established that CABG is superior to PCI in improving patient’s QOL with respect to all scales used to determine quality of life. Kaneez Fatima, Mohammad Yousuf-ul-Islam, Mehreen Ansari, Faizan Imran Bawany, Muhammad Shahzeb Khan, Akash Khetpal, Neelam Khetpal, Muhammad Nawaz Lashari, Mohammad Hussham Arshad, Raamish Bin Amir, Hoshang Rustom Kakalia, Qaiser Hasan Zaidi, Sharmeen Kamran Mian, and Bahram Kazani Copyright © 2016 Kaneez Fatima et al. All rights reserved.