On the Recursive Sequence
This paper studies the dynamic behavior of the positive solutions to the difference equation , , where , and are positive real numbers, and the initial conditions are arbitrary positive numbers. We establish some results regarding the stability and oscillation character of this equation for .
In recent years, there has been intense interest in the dynamic behavior of the positive solutions to a class of difference equations of the form where and are positive real numbers. Now, let us make a brief review on the advances in this class of difference equations.
In 1999, Amleh et al.  studied the second-order rational difference equation
Inspired by the previous work and by the work owing to Stević , this paper studies the behavior of the recursive equation We establish some interesting results regarding the stability and oscillation character of this equation for .
2. Stability Character
In this section we investigate the stability character of the positive solutions to (1.7).
A point is an equilibrium point of (1.7) if and only if it is a root for the function that is,
Lemma 2.1. Let , then (1.7) has a unique equilibrium point .
Case 1. . Then .Case 2. . Then defined by (2.1) is decreasing on and increasing on . Since and , then has a unique zero .Case 3. . Since is increasing on and , then has a unique zero .
Lemma 2.2. Let . Assume that is the equilibrium point of (1.7). If , then is locally asymptotically stable.
Proof. By the Linearized Stability Theorem , is locally asymptotically stable if and only if . A simple calculations shows that where is defined by (2.1). Then since , we have and . The proof is complete.
Lemma 2.3. If , then every positive solution to (1.7) is bounded.
Proof. Note that each
can be written in the form
and . From (1.7) and since
for every ,
we have that
and . Let
be the solution to the difference equation
From (2.4) and by induction we see that . Hence it is enough to prove that the sequences are bounded.
Since the function is increasing and concave for , it follows that there is a unique fixed point of the equation and that the function satisfies
Using this fact it is easy to see that if , the sequence is nondecreasing and bounded from above by , and if , it is nonincreasing and bounded from below by . Hence for every , each of the sequences is bounded. The claimed result follows.
Lemma 2.4 (see ). Let be distinct nonnegative integers. Consider the difference equation Suppose satisfies the following conditions. is a continuous function that is nondecreasing in the first argument and is nonincreasing in the second argument.The system has a unique solution .Then is the global attractor of all solutions to (2.7).
Theorem 2.5. Let , then the unique equilibrium to (1.7) is globally asymptotically stable.
Proof. By Lemma 2.3, there must exist
such that .
Let , it is easy
to verify that holds. In
Assume that ,
In case , we have , which contradicts with (2.10).
In case , we have , again a contradiction.
Thus . By Lemma 2.4, the required result follows.
Theorem 2.6. Let and . Then every positive solution to (1.7) converges to the unique equilibrium .
Proof. By Lemma 2.3, every positive
solution to (1.7) is bounded, which implies
that there are finite
Assume that . Taking the
in (1.7), it follows that
From this and , it follows that
Define function . Since we deduce that is increasing, and thus (2.13) cannot hold. Therefore we have , which implies the result.
Theorem 2.7. Let , and . Then every positive solution to (1.7) converges to the unique equilibrium .
Proof. From (2.11) we have
Consequently, we obtain . Suppose that
where , leading to
This implies that , which is a contradiction. Hence, .
3. Oscillation Character
In this section we investigate the oscillation character of the positive solutions to (1.7).
Theorem 3.1. Let be a positive solution to (1.7). Then either consists of a single semicycle or oscillates about the equilibrium with semicycles having at most terms.
Proof. Suppose that has at least two semicycles. Then there exists such that either or . Assume that . (The argument for the case is similar and is omitted). Now suppose that the positive semicycle beginning with the term has terms. Then and so This completes the proof.
Theorem 3.2. Suppose that is even and let be a solution to (1.7), which has consecutive semicycles of length one, then every semicycle after this point is of length one.
Proof. There exists
such that either
We prove the former case. The proof for the latter is similar and is omitted.
Now, we have
The result then follows by induction.
Lemma 3.3. Let . Then (1.7) has no nontrivial periodic solutions of (not necessarily prime) period .
Proof. Suppose that is a positive solution to (1.7) satisfying for all , then implies that for all . The proof is complete.
Theorem 3.4. Assume that . Let be a positive solution to (1.7), which consists of a single semicycle, then converges to the equilibrium .
Proof. Suppose (the case for is similar and is omitted) for all , then implying that and so From here it is clear that for there exists such that But then is a periodic solution of (not necessarily prime) period . By Lemma 3.3 the result holds.
The author is grateful to the anonymous referees for their valuable comments and suggestions. This work was supported by the Natural Science Foundation of China (no. 10771227) and the Project for New Century Excellent Talents of Educational Ministry of China (no. NCET-05-0759).
V. L. Kocić and G. Ladas, Global Behavior of Nonlinear Difference Equations of Higher Order with Applications, vol. 256 of Mathematics and Its Applications, Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, The Netherlands, 1993.View at: MathSciNet