Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society

Volume 2018, Article ID 4945728, 12 pages

https://doi.org/10.1155/2018/4945728

## Stability Analysis and Control Optimization of a Prey-Predator Model with Linear Feedback Control

^{1}College of Mathematics and Systems Science, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China^{2}College of Electrical Engineering and Automation, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China^{3}College of Foreign Languages, Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao 266590, China

Correspondence should be addressed to Huidong Cheng; nc.ude.tsuds@715009dhc

Received 13 July 2018; Revised 8 November 2018; Accepted 26 November 2018; Published 5 December 2018

Guest Editor: Abdul Qadeer Khan

Copyright © 2018 Yaning Li et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

#### Abstract

The application of pest management involves two thresholds when the chemical control and biological control are adopted, respectively. Our purpose is to provide an appropriate balance between the chemical control and biological control. Therefore, a Smith predator-prey system for integrated pest management is established in this paper. In this model, the intensity of implementation of biological control and chemical control depends linearly on the selected control level (threshold). Firstly, the existence and uniqueness of the order-one periodic solution (i.e., OOPS) are proved by means of the subsequent function method to confirm the feasibility of the biological and chemical control strategy of pest management. Secondly, the stability of system is proved by the limit method of the successor points’ sequences and the analogue of the Poincaré criterion. Moreover, an optimization strategy is formulated to reduce the total cost and obtain the best level of pest control. Finally, the numerical simulation of a specific model is performed.

#### 1. Introduction

In the practical production, effective control of pests is a very important issue of the world, which catches attention of scholars for pest management method [1–7]. Integrated pest management (IPM), also known as integrated pest control (IPC), is an effective approach that integrates biological, chemical tactics, and physical methods for pests control [8–11]. Due to population dynamics and its related environment, IPM utilize effective methods and techniques comprehensively to reduce the level of economic harm caused by pests. The aim of IPM is to control the density of the insects under the economic threshold by integrated usage of less harmful pesticides and biological control methods for maximizing the protection of the ecosystem.

In mathematics, impulsive differential equations (IDES) is such a powerful tool to describe these phenomena that rapid changes in biological populations are caused by the variety of the pests control by artificial intervention [12–22]. In recent years, the theoretical studies on IDES have produced a lot of good research results [23–34]. Based on the theoretical research, some scholars have introduced impulsive differential equations in Lotka-Volterra system such as the regular release of predators [35–37]; the periodic release of infected pests [38–40]; the periodic release of predators together with regular spray of pesticides [41–43]; the periodic release of predators and infected pests together with regular spray of pesticides [39, 44]. In the practical application, the two control measures can be adopted at two different levels of pest density concerning this case. Nie et al. [45], Tian et al. [46], Zhao et al. [47], and Zhang et al. [48] studied the following predator-prey system and assumed that different control measures were adopted at different thresholds,where the intrinsic growth rate of prey is denoted by , the environment carrying capacity is denoted by , the predation rate by natural enemies is denoted by , and the transformation rate and the death rate of predator are denoted by and , respectively. The is a positive parameter, and the effect of pesticide to predator and prey species is denoted by and , respectively. The releasing quantity of natural enemy are denoted by and , respectively.

It is of great practical significance to adopt biological and chemical control strategies based on the different pest thresholds. But an important issue in this process should be pointed out, in which the biological control is carried out when the density of pest denoted by reaches the threshold , and when the density reaches the threshold , the integrated control strategy is adopted. But no strategy adopted for the density of pest denoted by , where , which is obviously unreasonable. In addition, from an economic and practical point of view, the control taken at threshold seems to be early and the amount of releasing predators will also be huge, while the control taken at threshold seems to be late and the intensity of chemical control will also be high. Considering the above problems, we should choose a pest control method between and .

An outline of this paper is as follows. In next section, a pest management Smith model is formulated. Then the existence, uniqueness, and the asymptotically orbit stability of order-one periodic solution (OOPS) of system (7) are proved in Section 3. In Section 4, an optimization problem is formulated and obtained the minimized total cost in pest control. The theoretical results are verified by numerical simulations in Section 5. Finally, a conclusion is drawn.

#### 2. Model Formulation

In biological mathematics, Logistic model [10]is a classical mathematical model, where the predator and prey densities at time are denoted by and . denotes the intrinsic rate of growth and denotes the maximum environment carrying capacity, while system (2) is based on the assumption that the relative growth rate of the population size is linear function . In 1963, F.E.Smith found that the data about the population of Daphnia did not conform to the linear function [49]. Thus, Smith assumed that the relative growth rate of population density at time is proportional to the amount of remaining food; i.e.,where is the rate of food demand of the population at time ; is the rate of demand for food in a population saturated state. Smith assumed that the food required to keep the population is and the food required for the population to reproduce is . That is to say, Then Considering the demand for food of population reproduction, the Smith model uses the hyperbolic function instead of the linear function in the Logistic model. Thus, the Smith model is a further improvement of Logistic model. With the absence of predators, the per capita growth rate of the pest is assumed to be the Smith growth [49] model.

By the control strategy, the following predator-prey Smith system is investigated in this paper:where the releasing amount of the predator is denoted by and , , where . The strength of chemical control to the prey is and that to the predator is , where the parameters are continuous functions and satisfies , . A pest control level is between and . denotes the level of the predator at a lower density. By calculation we obtain , where are constants. When the density of predator is below , the chemical control is taken. Clearly, the control strategy of system (7) changes into the biological control strategy of system (1) when parameters , , and , of system (7), are chosen , , , , respectively. When parameters , , and , of system (7), are chosen , , , respectively, the control strategy of system (7) turns into the integrated control strategy of system (1). Therefore, system (7) is the further promotion of system (1).

In our paper, , , and are assumed to have the following linear form [10]

#### 3. Dynamical Analysis of System (7)

In this section, we dynamically analyze system (7) to study the existence, uniqueness and orbital asymptotical stability of the OOPS. For convenience, OOPS is used to represent the order-one periodic solution.

##### 3.1. Qualitative Analysis of System (7)

We first study the following continuous system of system (7); i.e.,LetThen we get three equilibria , , and , where Let where . Thus, we get the following theorem.

Theorem 1. *The positive equilibrium point is locally asymptotically stable, if holds.*

*Proof. *At the point , the Jacobian matrix is then When (I) holds, then . Thus the point is locally asymptotically stable.

Theorem 2. *If holds, then the point is globally asymptotically stable.*

*Proof. *Let , then we have when , then .

By the method in [48], the point is globally asymptotically stable (see Figure 1.)