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Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society
Volume 2019, Article ID 3825927, 19 pages
https://doi.org/10.1155/2019/3825927
Research Article

Global Dynamics of Higher-Order Exponential Systems of Difference Equations

1Department of Mathematics, University of Azad Jammu & Kashmir, Muzaffarabad 13100, Pakistan
2School of Mathematical Sciences, Faculty of Science and Technology, Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia, Bangi, Selangor, Malaysia

Correspondence should be addressed to A. Q. Khan; moc.liamg@1nahkreedaqludba

Received 11 December 2018; Accepted 24 April 2019; Published 2 June 2019

Academic Editor: Zhengqiu Zhang

Copyright © 2019 A. Q. Khan et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

In this paper, we study the global dynamics of three higher-order exponential systems of rational difference equations. This suggested work considerably extends and improves some existing results in the literature.

1. Introduction

Global dynamical properties of difference equations or systems of difference equations involving exponential term have been widely investigated in recent years. For instance, Ozturk et al. [1] have explored the dynamical properties of the following exponential difference equation:where , and are positive real numbers. Cömert et al. [2] have explored the dynamical properties of the following higher-order exponential difference equation: where , and are positive real numbers. Bozkurt [3] has explored the dynamical properties of the following exponential difference equation: where , and are positive real numbers. In 2009, Ozturk et al. [4] have explored the dynamical properties of the following higher-order exponential difference equation: where , and are positive real numbers. Papaschinopoulos et al. [5] have explored the dynamical properties of the following exponential systems of difference equations: where and are positive real numbers. Khan and Sharif [6] have explored the dynamical properties of the following exponential systems of difference equations: where and are positive real numbers. Khan and Qureshi [7] have explored the dynamical properties of the following exponential system of difference equations: where and are positive real numbers. Psarros et al. [8] have explored the dynamical properties of the following six exponential systems of difference equations: where and are positive real numbers. Mylona et al. [9] have explored the dynamical properties of the following two close-to-cyclic systems of exponential difference equations: where and are positive real numbers. Mylona et al. [10] have explored the dynamical properties of the following systems of difference equations with exponential terms: where and are positive real numbers, and for more other interesting results on difference equations as well as systems of difference equation, we refer the reader to [1113] and the references cited therein. Motivated by the above systemic studies, in this paper we aim to explore the dynamical properties of the following higher-order exponential systems of difference equations, which are natural extension of the work studied by Ozturk et al. [4]: where and are positive real numbers.

The rest of this paper is organized as follows: Section 2 is about the study of boundedness and persistence of systems (11), (12), and (13). This also includes construction of invariant rectangle of these systems. Section 3 is about the uniqueness and existence of fixed point of systems (11), (12), and (13). Section 4 deals with the study of local stability, whereas in Section 5 we study the global dynamics of the unique fixed point of these systems. Section 6 deals with the study of rate of convergence of systems (11), (12), and (13). Brief conclusion is given in Section 7.

2. Boundedness, Persistence, and Construction of Invariant Rectangle of Systems (11), (12), and (13)

Theorem 1. If , then every solution of system (11), system (12), and system (13) is bounded and persists.

Proof. If is a solution of (11), thenFrom (11) and (14) we getFinally from (14) and (15) we get If is a solution of (12), thenFrom (12) and (17) we haveFinally from (17) and (18) we get If is a solution of (13), thenFrom (13) and (20) we getFinally from (20) and (21) we get

Theorem 2. If , then following holds: (i)If is a solution of (11), then is invariant rectangle for (11).(ii)If is a solution of (12), then is invariant rectangle for (12).(iii)If is a solution of (13), then is invariant rectangle for (13).

Proof. The proof follows from mathematical induction.

3. Existence and Uniqueness of Equilibrium of Systems (11), (12), and (13)

Theorem 3. Assume that , then the following statements hold: (i)If andthen (11) has a unique equilibrium .(ii)Ifthen (12) has a unique equilibrium .(iii)Ifthen (13) has a unique equilibrium where and are defined in (53) and (54).

Proof. ConsiderFrom (26), we haveFrom (27), definewhereand . Now our claim is has a single solution . From (28) and (29) one getswhereIf is a solution of , then from (28) and (29) one getswhereIn view of (31), (32), and (33), (30) becomesNow assume that (23) holds, then from (34) one gets .
. From (12) one hasFrom (35) one getsFrom (36), definewhereand . We claim that has a single solution . From (37) and (38) one getswhereIf is a solution of , then from (37) and (38) one getswhereIn view of (40), (41), and (42), (39) becomesFinally assume that (24) holds, then from (43) one gets .
From system (13)From (44), definewhereand . We claim that has a single solution . From (45) and (46) one getswhereIf is a solution of , then from (45) and (46) one getswhereIn view of (48), (49), and (50), (47) becomeswhereand Finally assume that (25) along with (53) and (54) holds, then from (51) one gets .

4. Local Asymptotic Stability about Equilibrium of Systems (11), (12), and (13)

Theorem 4. Assume that , then the following statements hold:(i) Ifandthen of (11) is a sink.(ii)Ifandthen of (12) is a sink.(iii)Ifandthen of (13) is a sink.

Proof. If is equilibrium of (11), thenMoreover, linearized equation of (11) about iswhereandLet eigenvalues of be . Let be a diagonal matrix with , , andSince is invertible. So,The following two inequalities,imply thatFurthermore,It is a well-known fact that and have the same eigenvalues. ThusHence of (11) is a sink.
. If is equilibrium of (12), thenand linearized equation of (12) about iswhere is defined in (63). Alsoand Using arrangements as in the proof of one getsand

Assume that (68) and (69) hold, then Finally,Hence equilibrium (12) is a sink.

If is a fixed point of (13), thenand linearized equation of (13) about iswhere is again the same as (63). Moreover