Discrete Dynamics in Nature and Society http://www.hindawi.com The latest articles from Hindawi Publishing Corporation © 2016 , Hindawi Publishing Corporation . All rights reserved. Strategic Deconfliction of 4D Trajectory and Perturbation Analysis for Air Traffic Control and Automation System Sun, 25 Sep 2016 13:32:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/7028305/ Strategic 4D trajectory conflict-free planning is recognized as one of the core technologies of next-generation air traffic control and automation systems. To resolve potential conflicts during strategic 4D conflict-free trajectory planning, a protection-zone conflict-control model based on air traffic control separation constraints was proposed, in which relationships between expected arrival time and adjusted arrival time at conflicting waypoints for aircraft queues were built and transformed into dynamic linear equations under the definition of max-plus algebra. A method for strategic deconfliction of 4D trajectory was then proposed using two strategies: arrival time adjustment and departure time adjustment. In addition, departure time and flight duration perturbations were introduced to analyze the sensitivity of the planned strategic conflict-free 4D trajectories, and a robustness index for the conflict-free 4D trajectories was calculated. Finally, the proposed method was tested for the Shanghai air traffic control terminal area. The outcomes demonstrated that the planned strategic conflict-free 4D trajectories could avoid potential conflicts, and the slack time could be used to indicate their robustness. Complexity analysis demonstrated that deconfliction using max-plus algebra is more suitable for deconfliction of 4D trajectory with random sampling period in fix air route. Xinmin Tang, Yu Zhang, Ping Chen, Bo Li, and Songchen Han Copyright © 2016 Xinmin Tang et al. All rights reserved. The Hyper-Wiener Index of Trees of Order with Diameter Thu, 22 Sep 2016 14:18:47 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/7241349/ The hyper-Wiener index is a kind of extension of the Wiener index, used for predicting physicochemical properties of organic compounds. The hyper-Wiener index is defined as with the summation going over all pairs of vertices in , and denotes the distance of the two vertices and in the graph . In this paper, we obtain the second-minimum hyper-Wiener indices among all the trees with vertices and diameter and characterize the corresponding extremal graphs. Gaixiang Cai, Guidong Yu, Jinde Cao, Ahmad Alsaedi, and Fuad Alsaadi Copyright © 2016 Gaixiang Cai et al. All rights reserved. On a Five-Dimensional Nonautonomous Schistosomiasis Model with Latent Period Thu, 22 Sep 2016 11:21:29 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8707258/ A five-dimensional nonautonomous schistosomiasis model which include latent period is proposed and studied. By constructing several auxiliary functions and using some skills, we obtain some sufficient conditions for the extinction and permanence (uniform persistence) of infectious population of the model. New threshold values of integral form are obtained. For the corresponding autonomous schistosomiasis model, our results are consistent with the past results. For the periodic and almost periodic cases, some corollaries for the extinction and permanence of the disease are established. In order to illustrate our theoretical analysis, some numerical simulations are presented. Shujing Gao, Yanfei Dai, and Dehui Xie Copyright © 2016 Shujing Gao et al. All rights reserved. Certain Concepts in -Polar Fuzzy Graph Structures Thu, 22 Sep 2016 09:16:17 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6301693/ We apply the concept of -polar fuzzy sets to graph structures. We introduce certain concepts in -polar fuzzy graph structures, including strong -polar fuzzy graph structure, -polar fuzzy -cycle, -polar fuzzy -tree, -polar fuzzy -cut vertex, and -polar fuzzy -bridge, and we illustrate these concepts by several examples. We present the notions of -complement of an -polar fuzzy graph structure and self-complementary, strong self-complementary, totally strong self-complementary -polar fuzzy graph structures, and we investigate some of their properties. Muhammad Akram, Noura Alshehri, and Rabia Akmal Copyright © 2016 Muhammad Akram et al. All rights reserved. Backup Sourcing Decisions for Coping with Supply Disruptions under Long-Term Horizons Wed, 21 Sep 2016 08:05:33 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6716058/ This paper studies a buyer’s inventory control problem under a long-term horizon. The buyer has one major supplier that is prone to disruption risks and one backup supplier with higher wholesale price. Two kinds of sourcing methods are available for the buyer: single sourcing with/without contingent supply and dual sourcing. In contingent sourcing, the backup supplier is capacitated and/or has yield uncertainty, whereas in dual sourcing the backup supplier has an incentive to offer output flexibility during disrupted periods. The buyer’s expected cost functions and the optimal base-stock levels using each sourcing method under long-term horizon are obtained, respectively. The effects of three risk parameters, disruption probability, contingent capacity or uncertainty, and backup flexibility, are examined using comparative studies and numerical computations. Four sourcing methods, namely, single sourcing with contingent supply, dual sourcing, and single sourcing from either of the two suppliers, are also compared. These findings can be used as a valuable guideline for companies to select an appropriate sourcing strategy under supply disruption risks. Jing Hou and Lijun Sun Copyright © 2016 Jing Hou and Lijun Sun. All rights reserved. State-Dependent Impulsive Control Strategies for a Tumor-Immune Model Tue, 20 Sep 2016 16:42:07 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2979414/ Controlling the number of tumor cells leads us to expect more efficient strategies for treatment of tumor. Towards this goal, a tumor-immune model with state-dependent impulsive treatments is established. This model may give an efficient treatment schedule to control tumor’s abnormal growth. By using the Poincaré map and analogue of Poincaré criterion, some conditions for the existence and stability of a positive order-1 periodic solution of this model are obtained. Moreover, we carry out numerical simulations to illustrate the feasibility of our main results and compare fixed-time impulsive treatment effects with state-dependent impulsive treatment effects. The results of our simulations say that, in determining optimal treatment timing, the model with state-dependent impulsive control is more efficient than that with fixed-time impulsive control. Kwang Su Kim, Giphil Cho, Lin-Fei Nie, and Il Hyo Jung Copyright © 2016 Kwang Su Kim et al. All rights reserved. On the Singularity of Multivariate Hermite Interpolation of Total Degree Tue, 20 Sep 2016 13:36:28 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/7515876/ We study the singularity of multivariate Hermite interpolation of type total degree on nodes with . We first check the number of the interpolation conditions and the dimension of interpolation space. And then the singularity of the interpolation schemes is decided for most cases. Also some regular interpolation schemes are derived, a few of which are proved due to theoretical argument and most of which are verified by numerical method. There are some schemes to be decided and left open. Zhongyong Hu, Zhaoliang Meng, and Zhongxuan Luo Copyright © 2016 Zhongyong Hu et al. All rights reserved. Qualitative and Bifurcation Analysis of an SIR Epidemic Model with Saturated Treatment Function and Nonlinear Pulse Vaccination Sun, 18 Sep 2016 14:05:50 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/9146481/ An SIR epidemic model with saturated treatment function and nonlinear pulse vaccination is studied. The existence and stability of the disease-free periodic solution are investigated. The sufficient conditions for the persistence of the disease are obtained. The existence of the transcritical and flip bifurcations is considered by means of the bifurcation theory. The stability of epidemic periodic solutions is discussed. Furthermore, some numerical simulations are given to illustrate our results. Xiangsen Liu and Binxiang Dai Copyright © 2016 Xiangsen Liu and Binxiang Dai. All rights reserved. Discrete Chaotic Dynamics for Economics and Social Science Thu, 15 Sep 2016 11:50:27 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/3105084/ Christos K. Volos, Sundarapandian Vaidyanathan, Viet-Thanh Pham, and Esteban Tlelo-Cuautle Copyright © 2016 Christos K. Volos et al. All rights reserved. An Image Encryption Scheme Based on DNA Computing and Cellular Automata Thu, 08 Sep 2016 13:00:45 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5408529/ Networks have developed very quickly, allowing the speedy transfer of image information through Internet. However, the openness of these networks poses a serious threat to the security of image information. The field of image encryption has drawn attention for this reason. In this paper, the concepts of 1-dimensional DNA cellular automata and T-DNA cellular automata are defined, and the concept of reversible T-DNA cellular automata is introduced. An efficient approach to encryption involving reversible T-DNA cellular automata as an encryption tool and natural DNA sequences as the main keys is here proposed. The results of a simulation experiment, performance analysis, and comparison to other encryption algorithms showed this algorithm to be capable of resisting brute force attacks, statistical attacks, and differential attacks. It also enlarged the key space enormously. It meets the criteria for one-time pad and resolves the problem that one-time pad is difficult to save. Shihua Zhou, Bin Wang, Xuedong Zheng, and Changjun Zhou Copyright © 2016 Shihua Zhou et al. All rights reserved. The Impact of Subway Lines on Residential Property Values in Tianjin: An Empirical Study Based on Hedonic Pricing Model Thu, 08 Sep 2016 08:17:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1478413/ The construction of subways has an external impact on the urban environment. Among them, the most important acceleration function lies in the property values of housing near subway stations. Tianjin, the largest open coastal city in Northern China, is selected as the subject of the research in this paper by virtue of its unique background. The Hedonic Pricing Model is used in analysing the change in the value of the properties located within 1,000 metres of completed subway line 3 stations. Using the theories of land rent and land location, and a model of the impact of urban traffic on the surrounding real estate prices, we analyse the sphere of influence of Tianjin Metro Line 3 on real estate prices. Finally, the paper stresses the importance of urban construction and subway building and finds that different development strategies should be used according to the characteristics of the subway in various regions of the city. Hui Sun, Yuning Wang, and Qingbo Li Copyright © 2016 Hui Sun et al. All rights reserved. The Time Lags Effects of Innovation Input on Output in National Innovation Systems: The Case of China Wed, 07 Sep 2016 16:40:54 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1963815/ This paper investigates the time lags effects of innovation input on output in the national innovation systems (NIS). Firstly, we analyze the intrinsic properties of China’s NIS based on the conceptual framework and the causal loop diagram. Secondly, we construct a time lags distribution calculation model and employ the main innovation input indicators to measure the specific characteristics of time lags effects of innovation input on output for China in the period 2000–2012. The results indicate that there are considerable time lags in the four major feedback loops, and the distribution of time lags is various according to the characteristics of innovation input and influencing factors in the internal transformation. The trends of time lags from R&D personnel and industry-academia-research collaboration show steady growth, and the trends of time lags from R&D expenditure and government’s macro-control take inverted U-shaped pattern. Finally, we combine the estimation results of lags distribution calculation model with the analysis results of the causal loop diagram (including positive loops and negative loops) to provide some innovation policy suggestions. This study provides important implications for our understanding of the long-term complex lags effects of innovation input on output as well as for policy-makers designing and implementing the innovation strategies. Dan Wang, Xinli Zhao, and Zhenshan Zhang Copyright © 2016 Dan Wang et al. All rights reserved. Number of Forts in Iterated Logistic Mapping Wed, 07 Sep 2016 13:25:36 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4682168/ Using the theory of complete discrimination system and the computer algebra system MAPLE V.17, we compute the number of forts for the logistic mapping on parameterized by . We prove that if then the number of forts does not increase under iteration and that if then the number of forts is not bounded under iteration. Furthermore, we focus on the case of and give for each some critical values of for the change of numbers of forts. Kaixuan Yu and Zhiheng Yu Copyright © 2016 Kaixuan Yu and Zhiheng Yu. All rights reserved. On the Limit Cycles for Continuous and Discontinuous Cubic Differential Systems Wed, 07 Sep 2016 11:54:41 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4939780/ We study the number of limit cycles for the quadratic polynomial differential systems , having an isochronous center with continuous and discontinuous cubic polynomial perturbations. Using the averaging theory of first order, we obtain that 3 limit cycles bifurcate from the periodic orbits of the isochronous center with continuous perturbations and at least 7 limit cycles bifurcate from the periodic orbits of the isochronous center with discontinuous perturbations. Moreover, this work shows that the discontinuous systems have at least 4 more limit cycles surrounding the origin than the continuous ones. Ziguo Jiang Copyright © 2016 Ziguo Jiang. All rights reserved. Fuzzy Constrained Predictive Optimal Control of High Speed Train with Actuator Dynamics Wed, 07 Sep 2016 11:34:44 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5704743/ We investigate the problem of fuzzy constrained predictive optimal control of high speed train considering the effect of actuator dynamics. The dynamics feature of the high speed train is modeled as a cascade of cars connected by flexible couplers, and the formulation is mathematically transformed into a Takagi-Sugeno (T-S) fuzzy model. The goal of this study is to design a state feedback control law at each decision step to enhance safety, comfort, and energy efficiency of high speed train subject to safety constraints on the control input. Based on Lyapunov stability theory, the problem of optimizing an upper bound on the cruise control cost function subject to input constraints is reduced to a convex optimization problem involving linear matrix inequalities (LMIs). Furthermore, we analyze the influences of second-order actuator dynamics on the fuzzy constrained predictive controller, which shows risk of potentially deteriorating the overall system. Employing backstepping method, an actuator compensator is proposed to accommodate for the influence of the actuator dynamics. The experimental results show that with the proposed approach high speed train can track the desired speed, the relative coupler displacement between the neighbouring cars is stable at the equilibrium state, and the influence of actuator dynamics is reduced, which demonstrate the validity and effectiveness of the proposed approaches. Xi Wang, Yan Zhao, and Tao Tang Copyright © 2016 Xi Wang et al. All rights reserved. Qualitative Analysis of a Pest Management Gompertz Model with Interval State Feedback Impulsive Control Wed, 07 Sep 2016 10:04:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4294595/ An integrated pest management Gompertz model with interval impulsive control is put forward. Through pest density monitoring, an integrated control strategy is adopted; that is when pest density reaches an environmental damage level, pesticide is used as a control method; when pest density is lower than the damage level, predators as its natural enemy are released in case pest density is higher than the slightly harmful level and predator density is below its maintainable level. The analysis on the existence of order-1 or order-2 periodic orbit is carried out by the construction of Poincaré map of semicontinuous dynamical system. The stability and attractiveness of the periodic state are obtained by geometry approach, which ensures a certain robustness of control. The analytical results presented in the work are validated by numerical simulations for a specific model. Yuan Tian, Zhantao Zhang, and Kaibiao Sun Copyright © 2016 Yuan Tian et al. All rights reserved. Toward the Approximate Solution for Fractional Order Nonlinear Mixed Derivative and Nonlocal Boundary Value Problems Tue, 06 Sep 2016 17:13:01 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5601821/ The paper is devoted to the study of operational matrix method for approximating solution for nonlinear coupled system fractional differential equations. The main aim of this paper is to approximate solution for the problem under two different types of boundary conditions, -point nonlocal boundary conditions and mixed derivative boundary conditions. We develop some new operational matrices. These matrices are used along with some previously derived results to convert the problem under consideration into a system of easily solvable matrix equations. The convergence of the developed scheme is studied analytically and is conformed by solving some test problems. Hammad Khalil, Mohammed Al-Smadi, Khaled Moaddy, Rahmat Ali Khan, and Ishak Hashim Copyright © 2016 Hammad Khalil et al. All rights reserved. Global Exponential Stability of Periodic Solution for Neutral-Type Complex-Valued Neural Networks Tue, 06 Sep 2016 13:52:38 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1267954/ This paper deals with a class of neutral-type complex-valued neural networks with delays. By means of Mawhin’s continuation theorem, some criteria on existence of periodic solutions are established for the neutral-type complex-valued neural networks. By constructing an appropriate Lyapunov-Krasovskii functional, some sufficient conditions are derived for the global exponential stability of periodic solutions to the neutral-type complex-valued neural networks. Finally, numerical examples are given to show the effectiveness and merits of the present results. Song Guo and Bo Du Copyright © 2016 Song Guo and Bo Du. All rights reserved. Transmission Dynamics and Optimal Control of Malaria in Kenya Thu, 01 Sep 2016 09:44:48 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/8013574/ This paper proposes and analyses a mathematical model for the transmission dynamics of malaria with four-time dependent control measures in Kenya: insecticide treated bed nets (ITNs), treatment, indoor residual spray (IRS), and intermittent preventive treatment of malaria in pregnancy (IPTp). We first considered constant control parameters and calculate the basic reproduction number and investigate existence and stability of equilibria as well as stability analysis. We proved that if , the disease-free equilibrium is globally asymptotically stable in . If , the unique endemic equilibrium exists and is globally asymptotically stable. The model also exhibits backward bifurcation at . If , the model admits a unique endemic equilibrium which is globally asymptotically stable in the interior of feasible region . The sensitivity results showed that the most sensitive parameters are mosquito death rate and mosquito biting rates. We then consider the time-dependent control case and use Pontryagin’s Maximum Principle to derive the necessary conditions for the optimal control of the disease using the proposed model. The existence of optimal control problem is proved. Numerical simulations of the optimal control problem using a set of reasonable parameter values suggest that the optimal control strategy for malaria control in endemic areas is the combined use of treatment and IRS; for epidemic prone areas is the use of treatment and IRS; for seasonal areas is the use of treatment; and for low risk areas is the use of ITNs and treatment. Control programs that follow these strategies can effectively reduce the spread of malaria disease in different malaria transmission settings in Kenya. Gabriel Otieno, Joseph K. Koske, and John M. Mutiso Copyright © 2016 Gabriel Otieno et al. All rights reserved. Impulsive Control on Seasonally Perturbed General Holling Type Two-Prey One-Predator Model Wed, 31 Aug 2016 14:37:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/9268257/ We investigate the dynamical behaviors of two-prey one-predator model with general Holling type functional responses. The effect of seasonal perturbation on the model has been discussed analytically as well as numerically. The periodic fluctuation is considered in prey growth rate and the predator mortality rate of the model. The impulsive effects involving biological and chemical control strategy, periodic releasing of natural enemies, and spraying pesticide at different fixed times are introduced in the model with seasonal perturbation. We derive the conditions of stability for impulsive system using Floquet theory, small amplitude perturbation skills. A local asymptotically stable prey (pest) eradicated periodic solution is obtained when the impulsive period is less than some critical value. Numerical simulations of the model with and without seasonal disturbances exhibit different dynamics. Also we simulate numerically the model involving seasonal perturbations without impulse and with impulse. Finally, concluding remarks are given. Chandrima Banerjee and Pritha Das Copyright © 2016 Chandrima Banerjee and Pritha Das. All rights reserved. Networked Dynamical Systems 2016 Wed, 31 Aug 2016 11:42:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4145918/ Jinde Cao, Guoqiang Hu, Wei Lin, Guanghui Wen, Wenwu Yu, and Zhiqiang Zuo Copyright © 2016 Jinde Cao et al. All rights reserved. The Analysis of Vertical Transaction Behavior and Performance Based on Automobile Brand Trust in Supply Chain Tue, 30 Aug 2016 15:27:52 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4793851/ The nontrust behaviors among the automobile supply chain members lead to a trust crisis situation. Under such circumstances, this paper studies the mutual influences of trust, enterprise behavior, and transaction performance on the independent brand automobile supply chain. The business behavior concept which consists of information sharing, joint action, and specific asset investment is proposed. Then, the paper tests the reliability and validity of the collected data through Structural Equation Modeling (SEM). Through empirical test and analysis on mutual relationship among vertical transaction enterprise behaviors, trust, and transaction performance, the vertical transaction enterprise behaviors can be regulated, so as to improve the efficiency of independent brand automobile supply chain. Guanglan Zhou, Yulian Fei, and Jun Hu Copyright © 2016 Guanglan Zhou et al. All rights reserved. Timetable Optimization of Rail Transit Loop Line with Transfer Coordination Mon, 29 Aug 2016 16:36:14 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4627094/ In an urban rail transit system, it is important to coordinate the timetable of a loop line with its connecting lines so as to reduce the waiting time of passengers. This is particularly essential because transfer passengers usually account for the majority of the total passengers in loop lines. In this paper, a timetable optimization model is developed for loop line in order to minimize the average waiting time of access passengers and transfer passengers. This is performed by adjusting the headways and dwell times of trains on the loop line. A genetic algorithm is applied to solve the proposed model, and a numerical example is used to verify its effectiveness. Finally, a case study of a loop line in the Beijing urban rail transit system is conducted. Waiting times of the passengers and the number of waiting passengers are used as performance indicators to verify the optimization results in rush hours and non-rush hours. The results show that the average waiting times for the up-track and down-track are reduced by 3.69% and 2.89% during rush hours and by 11.60% and 11.47% during non-rush hours, respectively. Rui-Jia Shi, Bao-Hua Mao, Yong Ding, Yun Bai, and Yao Chen Copyright © 2016 Rui-Jia Shi et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Analysis and Optimization of a Production Control System under Supply and Demand Uncertainties Mon, 29 Aug 2016 08:48:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/6823934/ This study investigates the dynamic performance and optimization of a typical discrete production control system under supply disruption and demand uncertainty. Two different types of uncertain demands, disrupted demand with a step change in demand and random demand, are considered. We find that, under demand disruption, the system’s dynamic performance indicators (the peak values of the order rate, production completion rate, and inventory) increase with the duration of supply disruption; however, they increase and decrease sequentially with the supply disruption start time. This change tendency differs from the finding that each kind of peak is independent of the supply disruption start time under no demand disruption. We also find that, under random demand, the dynamic performance indicators (Bullwhip and variance amplification of inventory relative to demand) increase with the disruption duration, but they have a decreasing tendency as demand variance increases. In order to design an adaptive system, we propose a genetic algorithm that minimizes the respective objective function on the system’s dynamic performance indicators via choosing appropriate system parameters. It is shown that the optimal parameter choices relate closely to the supply disruption start time and duration under disrupted demand and to the supply disruption duration under random demand. Qiankai Qing, Wen Shi, Hai Li, and Yuan Shao Copyright © 2016 Qiankai Qing et al. All rights reserved. Chaotic Synchronization of Modified Discrete-Time Tinkerbell Systems Sun, 28 Aug 2016 16:48:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5218080/ This paper studies chaotic synchronization of modified discrete-time Tinkerbell systems. By constructing the Lyapunov function and using the linear feedback control, some synchronization criteria for modified discrete-time Tinkerbell systems are derived. The conservativeness of those synchronization criteria is compared. The effectiveness of derived results is demonstrated by six examples. Ke Ding and Xing Xu Copyright © 2016 Ke Ding and Xing Xu. All rights reserved. Assessing the Reliability of a Multistate Logistics Network under the Transportation Cost Constraint Sun, 28 Aug 2016 13:27:16 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/2628950/ Reliability and transportation cost are two important indicators to measure the performance of logistics network. As a combination of reliability and transportation cost, the performance index of logistics network is defined as the probability that at least units of flow demand can be successfully transmitted from the source to the destination with the total transportation cost less than or equal to . In this paper, an algorithm is developed to calculate in terms of -minimal paths (-MPs for short). The proposed algorithm employs a decomposition technique to divide the search space of -MPs such that the search space of -MPs can be dramatically reduced, and thereby -MPs can be efficiently obtained. An example is provided to illustrate the proposed algorithm. Finally, computational experiments conducted on one benchmark network indicate that the proposed method has an advantage over the existing methods. Qi Zeng and Xiu-Zhen Xu Copyright © 2016 Qi Zeng and Xiu-Zhen Xu. All rights reserved. A Decentralized Partially Observable Decision Model for Recognizing the Multiagent Goal in Simulation Systems Sun, 28 Aug 2016 12:33:25 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/5323121/ Multiagent goal recognition is important in many simulation systems. Many of the existing modeling methods need detailed domain knowledge of agents’ cooperative behaviors and a training dataset to estimate policies. To solve these problems, we propose a novel decentralized partially observable decision model (Dec-POMDM), which models cooperative behaviors by joint policies. In this compact way, we only focus on the distribution of joint policies. Additionally, a model-free algorithm, cooperative colearning based on Sarsa, is exploited to estimate agents’ policies under the assumption of rationality, which makes the training dataset unnecessary. In the inference, considering that the Dec-POMDM is discrete and its state space is large, we implement a marginal filter (MF) under the framework of the Dec-POMDM, where the initial world states and results of actions are uncertain. In the experiments, a new scenario is designed based on the standard predator-prey problem: we increase the number of preys, and our aim is to recognize the real target of predators. Experiment results show that (a) our method recognizes goals well even when they change dynamically; (b) the Dec-POMDM outperforms supervised trained HMMs in terms of precision, recall, and F-measure; and (c) the MF infers goals more efficiently than the particle filter under the framework of the Dec-POMDM. Shiguang Yue, Kristina Yordanova, Frank Krüger, Thomas Kirste, and Yabing Zha Copyright © 2016 Shiguang Yue et al. All rights reserved. Dynamic Complexities in 2-Dimensional Discrete-Time Predator-Prey Systems with Allee Effect in the Prey Thu, 25 Aug 2016 14:05:51 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4275372/ The Allee effect is incorporated into a predator-prey model with linear functional response. Compared with the predator-prey which only takes the crowding effect and predator partially dependent on prey into consideration, it is found that the Allee effect of the prey species would increase the extinction risk of both the prey and predator. Moreover, by using a center manifold theorem and bifurcation theory, it is shown that the model with Allee effect undergoes the flip bifurcation and Hopf bifurcation in the interior of with different Allee effect values. In the two bifurcations, we can come to the conclusion that different Allee effect will have different bifurcation value and the increasing of the Allee effect will increase the value of bifurcation, respectively. Jie Yan, Chunli Li, Xueli Chen, and Lishun Ren Copyright © 2016 Jie Yan et al. All rights reserved. Existence of Nonoscillatory Solutions of Higher-Order Neutral Differential Equations with Distributed Coefficients and Delays Thu, 25 Aug 2016 13:05:53 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/1026726/ We consider the existence of nonoscillatory solutions of higher-order neutral differential equations with distributed coefficients. We use the contraction principle to obtain new sufficient condition for the existence of nonoscillatory solutions. Youjun Liu, Huanhuan Zhao, and Jurang Yan Copyright © 2016 Youjun Liu et al. All rights reserved. Convergence of Global Solutions to the Cauchy Problem for the Replicator Equation in Spatial Economics Thu, 25 Aug 2016 09:32:40 +0000 http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ddns/2016/4021516/ We study the initial-value problem for the replicator equation of the -region Core-Periphery model in spatial economics. The main result shows that if workers are sufficiently agglomerated in a region at the initial time, then the initial-value problem has a unique global solution that converges to the equilibrium solution expressed by full agglomeration in that region. Minoru Tabata and Nobuoki Eshima Copyright © 2016 Minoru Tabata and Nobuoki Eshima. All rights reserved.