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Disease Markers
Volume 13, Issue 1, Pages 31-41

Acid-Stable Serine Proteinase Inhibitors in the Urine of Alzheimer Disease Subjects

Giulia Sparro,1 Salvatore Bonaiuto,2 Gabriella Galoenzi,1 Anna Maria Eleuteri,1 Mauro Angeletti,1 Giulio Lupidi,1 Rosalia Tacconi,1 Elvio Giannandrea,2 Andrea Vesprini,2 and Evanoro Fioretti1

1Department of Molecular, Cellular and Animal Biology, Post-Graduate School in Biochemistry and Clinical Chemistry, University of Camerino, 62032-Camerino (MC), Italy
2Italian National Research Centers on Aging (INRCA) of Ferrno, 63023 Fenno (AP) and Appignano, 62010 Appignano (MC), Italy

Received 23 January 1996

Copyright © 1996 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


A comparative study of the levels of acid-stable proteinase inhibitors (kallikrein and trypsin inhibitors) in the urine of healthy and Alzheimer subjects, of both sexes, has been performed. A preliminary characterization of the purified inhibitors indicates that the urinary antitryptic activity is accounted for by the presence of the well known Urinary Trypsin Inhibitor (UTI) while an apparently new molecule appears to be responsible for the anti kallikrein activity. The urinary levels of kallikrein inhibitors are very similar in healthy and sick subjects while the levels of trypsin inhibitors appear significatively increased in Alzheimer subjects of both sexes. The data presented here support the hypothesis that unpaired proteolytic processes could be involved in the pathogenesis of Alzheimer's disease and suggest that the levels of urinary acid-stable inhibitors may prove to be useful markers of the disease.