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Disease Markers
Volume 15, Issue 4, Pages 259-267

Menstrual Cycle Dependent Variability for Serum Tumor Markers CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125 and CA 15-3 in Healthy Women

Ayşe Binnur Erbağci,1 Necat Yilmaz,1 and Irfan Kutlar2

1Department of Biochemistry and Clinical Biohemistry, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey
2Department of Obstetrics and Gynecology, Faculty of Medicine, University of Gaziantep, Gaziantep, Turkey

Received 9 December 1999; Accepted 9 December 1999

Copyright © 1999 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Information on menstrual cycle dependent variation of tumor markers in healthy women is a subject of diagnostic efficiency and has an impact in elucidating the normal function of these markers. In this study midfollicular and midluteal concentrations of serum CEA, AFP, CA 19-9, CA 125, CA 15-3 and their relations with LH, FSH, prolactin, estradiol and progesterone were evaluated during ovulatory cycles in a group of 23 healthy female individuals. Samples were collected on the 7th and 21st day of the same menstrual cycle. Tumor marker and hormone concentrations were determined with chemiluminescence or electrochemiluminescence EIA methods. A significant phase-dependent difference was observed for CA 15-3, midluteal concentrations (mean ± SEM; 26.33 ± 1.56 U/ml) higher than the midfollicular (mean ± SEM; 19.27 ± 1.49 U/ml) concentrations (p < 0.001). But an obvious difference for other tumor markers investigated did not exist. Significant correlations of follicular and luteal CA 125 levels with body mass index of the subjects were observed (r:0.52, p < 0.05 and r:0.57, p < 0.005, respectively).

CA 15-3 antigen is a product of the MUC-1 gene which is expressed in abundance by endometrial epithelial cells in the secretory phase of the menstrual cycle which may be the potential source of variability. The association of CA 125 levels with obesity suggests a possible role of adipose tissue in CA 125 metabolism. In conclusion our data suggest that in healthy women serum CA 15-3 levels are significantly elevated in the midluteal phase of the menstrual cycle compared to midfollicular phase. Therefore, consideration of menstrual cycle dependent variability for CA 15-3 appears indicated in interpretation of individual results.