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Disease Markers
Volume 20, Issue 3, Pages 167-178

Heart Disease, Clinical Proteomics and Mass Spectrometry

Brian A. Stanley,2,3 Rebekah L. Gundry,1 Robert J. Cotter,1 and Jennifer E. Van Eyk2,3

1Department of Pharmacology, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
2Department of Medicine, Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, MD, USA
3Department of Physiology, Queen’s University, Kingston, Ontario, Canada

Received 18 October 2004; Accepted 18 October 2004

Copyright © 2004 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Heart disease is the leading cause of mortality and morbidity in the world. As such, biomarkers are needed for the diagnosis, prognosis, therapeutic monitoring and risk stratification of acute injury (acute myocardial infarction (AMI)) and chronic disease (heart failure). The procedure for biomarker development involves the discovery, validation, and translation into clinical practice of a panel of candidate proteins to monitor risk of heart disease. Two types of biomarkers are possible; heart-specific and cardiovascular pulmonary system monitoring markers. Here we review the use of MS in the process of cardiac biomarker discovery and validation by proteomic analysis of cardiac myocytes/tissue or serum/plasma. An example of the use of MS in biomarker discovery is given in which the albumin binding protein sub-proteome was examined using MALDI-TOF MS/MS. Additionally, an example of MS in protein validation is given using affinity surface enhanced laser desorption ionization (SELDI) to monitor the disease-induced post-translational modification and the ternary status of myoctye-originating protein, cardiac troponin I in serum.