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Disease Markers
Volume 30 (2011), Issue 1, Pages 19-24

Tumor Necrosis Factor-Alpha Gene Promoter −308G/A and −238G/A Polymorphisms in Mexican Patients with Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus

Juan Manuel Guzmán-Flores,1 José Francisco Muñoz-Valle,2 José Sánchez-Corona,1 José G. Cobián,3 Leopoldo Medina-Carrillo,4 Alejandra G. García-Zapién,1 Edhit G. Cruz-Quevedo,1 and Silvia Esperanza Flores-Martínez1

1División de Medicina Molecular, Centro de Investigación Biomédica de Occidente, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
2Instituto de Investigación en Reumatología y del Sistema Músculo Esquelético, Centro Universitario de Ciencias de la Salud, Universidad de Guadalajara, Jalisco, Mexico
3Hospital General de Zona No. 1, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Colima, Colima, Mexico
4Coordinación Delegacional de Investigación en Salud, Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, Tepic, Nayarit, Mexico

Received 14 April 2011; Accepted 14 April 2011

Copyright © 2011 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


The association between some Tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) promoter polymorphisms and Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) remains controversial. Ethnic differences may play a role in these conflicting results. The aim of this study was to investigate the association between −308G/A and −238G/A polymorphisms located in the promoter region of the TNF-α gene and T2DM in Mexican mestizo patients. Nine hundred four individuals (259 patients with T2DM and 645 controls) were genotyped for the −308G/A and −238G/A polymorphisms by PCR—RFLP. We found that the −238A allele increased the risk of developing T2DM in Mexican patients (OR = 1.57, 95% CI: 1.07–2.29; p = 0.018). Moreover, we found that the frequency of the GA haplotype (created by the −308G and −238A alleles) was significantly increased in patients with T2DM when compared with controls (OR = 1.56, 95% CI: 1.05–2.31; p = 0.026). Our results suggest that the −238G/A polymorphism and a specific haplotype (GA) are genetic risk factors for the development of T2DM in Mexican population.