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Disease Markers
Volume 30 (2011), Issue 6, Pages 317-324

Glycated Lysine Residues: A Marker for Non-Enzymatic Protein Glycation in Age-Related Diseases

Nadeem A. Ansari, Moinuddin, and Rashid Ali

Department of Biochemistry, J N Medical College, AMU, Aligarh-02, India

Received 28 June 2011; Accepted 28 June 2011

Copyright © 2011 Hindawi Publishing Corporation. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Nonenzymatic glycosylation or glycation of macromolecules, especially proteins leading to their oxidation, play an important role in diseases. Glycation of proteins primarily results in the formation of an early stage and stable Amadori-lysine product which undergo further irreversible chemical reactions to form advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs). This review focuses these products in lysine rich proteins such as collagen and human serum albumin for their role in aging and age-related diseases. Antigenic characteristics of glycated lysine residues in proteins together with the presence of serum autoantibodies to the glycated lysine products and lysine-rich proteins in diabetes and arthritis patients indicates that these modified lysine residues may be a novel biomarker for protein glycation in aging and age-related diseases.