Background: Resistin and adiponectin are the adipokines secreted by adipocytes and various inflammatory cells. These adipokines are known to play an important role in insulin resistance. The aim of this study was to determine the serum resistin levels in periodontal health and disease and also, to determine the effect of nonsurgical periodontal therapy on its levels.Methods: A total of 40 patients (20 Males and 20 Females; age range 20–50 years) participated in the study. Subjects were categorized as healthy (group 1; Controls) and chronic periodontitis (group 2; Study) groups based on their periodontal status. Periodontal parameters (Plaque index (PI), Gingival index (GI), Bleeding index (BI), Probing pocket depth (PPD), Clinical attachment loss (CAL)) together with serum resistin levels were assessed at baseline and between 6–8 weeks following nonsurgical periodontal therapy for subjects in group~2 and only at baseline in group 1. Sera were tested in duplicate (single run), and the results were averaged.Results: Study group showed higher (1.89 ± 1.83 ng/ml) serum resistin levels, compared to control group (1.35 ± 0.70 ng/ml). However, this difference was not statistically significant (P=0.227). Also, resistin levels decreased following nonsurgical periodontal therapy but, this decrease failed to show any statistical significance, with pretreatment levels being 1.89 ± 1.83 ng/ml and post treatment levels being 1.59 ± 1.01 ng/ml (P=0.386).Conclusion: Observations of the present study revealed that there was not much difference in the serum resistin levels between the cases and the controls. Also the decrease in the resistin levels following nonsurgical periodontal therapy did not show any statistical significance.