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Disease Markers
Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 661–667
Research Article

Sex-Specific Genomic Biomarkers for Individualized Treatment of Life-Threatening Diseases

1Department of Mathematics and Statistics, California State University, 1250 Bellflower Boulevard, Long Beach, CA 90840-1001, USA
2Department of Computer Science, University of California, Santa Cruz, CA 95064, USA
3Division of Bioinformatics and Biostatistics, National Center for Toxicological Research, FDA, Jefferson, AR 72079, USA
4Graduate Institute of Biostatistics and Biostatistics Center, China Medical University, Taichung, Taiwan

Received 30 June 2013; Revised 7 October 2013; Accepted 20 October 2013

Academic Editor: Kishore Chaudhry

Copyright © 2013 Hojin Moon et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Numerous studies have demonstrated sex differences in drug reactions to the same drug treatment, steering away from the traditional view of one-size-fits-all medicine. A premise of this study is that the sex of a patient influences difference in disease characteristics and risk factors. In this study, we intend to exploit and to obtain better sex-specific biomarkers from gene-expression data. We propose a procedure to isolate a set of important genes as sex-specific genomic biomarkers, which may enable more effective patient treatment. A set of sex-specific genes is obtained by a variable importance ranking using a combination of cross-validation methods. The proposed procedure is applied to three gene-expression datasets.