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Disease Markers
Volume 35, Issue 6, Pages 687–699
Review Article

Clinical, MRI, and CSF Markers of Disability Progression in Multiple Sclerosis

Section of Clinical Neurology, Department of Neurological and Movement Sciences, University of Verona, Neurology Unit, Borgo Roma, Azienda Ospedaliera Universitaria Integrata Verona, Piazzale Ludovico Antonio Scuro 9, 37134 Verona, Italy

Received 30 June 2013; Revised 12 September 2013; Accepted 9 October 2013

Academic Editor: Ralf Lichtinghagen

Copyright © 2013 Alberto Gajofatto et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a chronic disorder of the central nervous system (CNS) in which the complex interplay between inflammation and neurodegeneration determines varying degrees of neurological disability. For this reason, it is very difficult to express an accurate prognosis based on purely clinical information in the individual patient at an early disease stage. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) and cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) biomarkers are promising sources of prognostic information with a good potential of quantitative measure, sensitivity, and reliability. However, a comprehensive MS outcome prediction model combining multiple parameters is still lacking. Current relevant literature addressing the topic of clinical, MRI, and CSF markers as predictors of MS disability progression is reviewed here.