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Disease Markers
Volume 35, Issue 5, Pages 551–559
Review Article

Lipoprotein(a): A Promising Marker for Residual Cardiovascular Risk Assessment

1Department of Cardiology, Guangdong Cardiovascular Institute, Guangdong General Hospital, Guangdong Academy of Medical Sciences, Guangzhou 510080, China
2The Department of Cardiology, The First Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou 510080, China

Received 31 May 2013; Revised 3 September 2013; Accepted 4 September 2013

Academic Editor: Francisco Blanco-Vaca

Copyright © 2013 Anping Cai et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Atherosclerotic cardiovascular diseases (CVD) are still the leading cause of morbidity and mortality worldwide, although optimal medical therapy has been prescribed for primary and secondary preventions. Residual cardiovascular risk for some population groups is still considerably high although target low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C) level has been achieved. During the past few decades, compelling pieces of evidence from clinical trials and meta-analyses consistently illustrate that lipoprotein(a) (Lp(a)) is a significant risk factor for atherosclerosis and CVD due to its proatherogenic and prothrombotic features. However, the lack of effective medication for Lp(a) reduction significantly hampers randomized, prospective, and controlled trials conducting. Based on previous findings, for patients with LDL-C in normal range, Lp(a) may be a useful marker for identifying and evaluating the residual cardiovascular risk, and aggressively lowering LDL-C level than current guidelines’ recommendation may be reasonable for patients with particularly high Lp(a) level.