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Disease Markers
Volume 35, Issue 5, Pages 457–463
Research Article

The Salivary β-HEX A% Index as an Excellent Marker of Periodontitis in Smoking Alcohol-Dependent Persons

1Department of Psychiatry, Medical University of Białystok, Plac Brodowicza 1, 16-070 Choroszcz, Poland
2Department of Imaging Diagnostics, Medical University of Białystok, Children Hospital, ul. Waszyngtona 17, 15-274 Białystok, Poland
3Medical Institute, College of Computer Science and Business Administration, ul. Akademicka 1, 18-400 Łomża, Poland
4Department of Emergency Medicine and Disasters, Medical University of Białystok, ul. Szpitalna 37, 15-295 Białystok, Poland
5Department of Pedodontics, Medical University of Białystok, ul. Waszyngtona 15A, 15-274 Białystok, Poland
6Department of Biochemistry and Experimental Medicine, The Children’s Memorial Health Institute, Al. Dzieci Polskich 20, 04-730 Warsaw, Poland
7Research Laboratory of Cosmetology, Medical University of Białystok, ul. Akademicka 3, 15-267 Białystok, Poland
8Department of Statistics and Medical Informatics, Medical University of Białystok, ul. Szpitalna 37, 15-295 Białystok, Poland
9Medical College of the Universal Education Society, ul. Adama Mickiewicza 59, 18-400 Łomża, Poland

Received 16 July 2013; Revised 17 September 2013; Accepted 17 September 2013

Academic Editor: George Perry

Copyright © 2013 Napoleon Waszkiewicz et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Background. Severe periodontitis leading to tooth loss is found in 5–15% of most populations worldwide. Aim. The applicability of salivary β-hexosaminidase (β-HEX A%, percentage of β-HEX A isoenzyme to total β-HEX) and β-HEX B% (β-HEX B/β-HEX) indexes was investigated as a possible marker of periodontitis. Methods. Thirty three alcohol-dependent smokers (AS) and 32 healthy controls (C) were enrolled in the study. The activity of β-HEX was measured spectrophotometrically. Results. β-HEX A% was significantly higher and β-HEX B% was lower in AS than in C group. We found a significant correlation between β-HEX A% and gingival index (GI) and an inverse correlation between β-HEX A% and salivary flow (SF), in all groups. Salivary β-HEX A% index in smoking alcoholics at 0.23 had excellent sensitivity (96%) and specificity (91%); the AUC for β-HEX A% was high (0.937). There were no correlations between amount/duration-time of alcohol drinking/smoking and β-HEX A% or β-HEX B%. We found significant correlations between the time period of denture wearing and GI, papilla bleeding index (PBI), and decayed missing filled teeth index (DMFT) and between GI and the amount of smoked cigarettes per day. Conclusion. Bad periodontal state was most likely due to the nicotine dependence. Salivary β-HEX A% is a promising excellent marker for the diagnosis of periodontitis.