Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 35, Issue 2, Pages 85–96
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/724706
Research Article

Markers of Increased Cardiovascular Risk in Postmenopausal Women: Focus on Oxidized-LDL and HDL Subpopulations

1Laboratory of Pharmacology & Experimental Therapeutics, IBILI, Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, 3000-548 Coimbra, Portugal
2ESAV and Educational Technologies and Health Study Centre, Polytechnic Institute of Viseu, 3504-510 Viseu, Portugal
3Service of Biochemistry, Faculty of Pharmacy, University of Porto, 4050-313 Porto, Portugal
4Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology, University of Porto, 4150-180 Porto, Portugal
5Research Centre for Health Sciences, Beira Interior University, 6201-001 Covilhã, Portugal
6Centre for Mathematics, University of Coimbra, 3001-454 Coimbra, Portugal

Received 14 February 2013; Accepted 8 May 2013

Academic Editor: Sudhir Srivastava

Copyright © 2013 Filipa Mascarenhas-Melo et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. C. Leuzzi, R. Marzullo, and M. G. Modena, “Is menopause a risk factor for ischemic heart disease in women?” Giornale Italiano di Cardiologia, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 401–406, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  2. M. Kaushik, S. P. Sontineni, and C. Hunter, “Cardiovascular disease and androgens: a review,” International Journal of Cardiology, vol. 142, no. 1, pp. 8–14, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. E. Casiglia, V. Tikhonoff, S. Caffi et al., “Menopause does not affect blood pressure and risk profile, and menopausal women do not become similar to men,” Journal of Hypertension, vol. 26, no. 10, pp. 1983–1992, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. H. Smulyan, R. G. Asmar, A. Rudnicki, G. M. London, and M. E. Safar, “Comparative effects of aging in men and women on the properties of the arterial tree,” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 37, pp. 1374–1380, 2001. View at Google Scholar
  5. H. Mangge, G. Almer, M. Truschnig-Wilders, A. Schmidt, R. Gasser, and D. Fuchs, “Inflammation, adiponectin, obesity and cardiovascular risk,” Current Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 17, no. 36, pp. 4511–4520, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. S.-S. Huang, P.-H. Huang, Y.-H. Chen, K.-H. Chiang, J.-W. Chen, and S.-J. Lin, “Association of adiponectin with future cardiovascular events in patients after acute myocardial infarction,” Journal of Atherosclerosis and Thrombosis, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 295–303, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. F. Girardi, E. Franceschi, and A. A. Brandes, “Cardiovascular safety of VEGF-targeting therapies: current evidence and handling strategies,” Oncologist, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 683–694, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. A. N. N. Mertens and P. Holvoet, “Oxidized LDL and HDL: antagonists in atherothrombosis,” FASEB Journal, vol. 15, no. 12, pp. 2073–2084, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. I. Mackness, P. N. Durrington, and B. Mackness, “The role of paraoxonase 1 activity in cardiovascular disease: potential for therapeutic intervention,” American Journal of Cardiovascular Drugs, vol. 4, no. 4, pp. 211–217, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. K. Mahdy Ali, A. Wonnerth, K. Huber, and J. Wojta, “Cardiovascular disease risk reduction by raising HDL cholesterol—current therapies and future opportunities,” British Journal of Pharmacology, vol. 167, pp. 1177–1194, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  11. S. Redondo, J. Martínez-González, C. Urraca, and T. Tejerina, “Emerging therapeutic strategies to enhance HDL function,” Lipids in Health and Disease, vol. 10, article 175, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. B. F. Asztalos, P. S. Roheim, R. L. Milani et al., “Distribution of apoA-I-containing HDL subpopulations in patients with coronary heart disease,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 20, no. 12, pp. 2670–2676, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. A. Pirillo, G. D. Norata, and A. L. Catapano, “High-density lipoprotein subfractions—what the clinicians need to know,” Cardiology, vol. 124, pp. 116–125, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  14. World Health Organization Scientific Group, “Research on the menopause in the 1990s,” WHO Technical Services Department Series 866, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.
  15. G. M. Singh, G. Danaei, P. M. Pelizzari et al., “The age associations of blood pressure, cholesterol, and glucose: analysis of health examination surveys from international populations,” Circulation, vol. 125, pp. 2204–2211, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  16. F. B. Dalpino, L. Menna-Barreto, and E. C. de Faria, “Influences of sex and age on biological rhythms of serum lipids and lipoproteins,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 406, no. 1-2, pp. 57–61, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. V. Manninen, L. Tenkanen, P. Koskinen et al., “Joint effects of serum triglyceride and LDL cholesterol and HDL cholesterol concentrations on coronary heart disease risk in the Helsinki Heart Study. Implications for treatment,” Circulation, vol. 85, no. 1, pp. 37–45, 1992. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. S. Zelzer, N. Fuchs, G. Almer et al., “High density lipoprotein cholesterol level is a robust predictor of lipid peroxidation irrespective of gender, age, obesity, and inflammatory or metabolic biomarkers,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 412, no. 15-16, pp. 1345–1349, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. K. Kotani, N. Sakane, M. Ueda et al., “Oxidized high-density lipoprotein is associated with increased plasma glucose in non-diabetic dyslipidemic subjects,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 414, pp. 125–129, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  20. M. Maytin, J. Leopold, and J. Loscalzo, “Oxidant stress in the vasculature,” Current Atherosclerosis Reports, vol. 1, no. 2, pp. 156–164, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. R. Movva and D. J. Rader, “Laboratory assessment of HDL heterogeneity and function,” Clinical Chemistry, vol. 54, no. 5, pp. 788–800, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. D. J. Rader, “Illuminating HDL—is it still a viable therapeutic target?” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 357, no. 21, pp. 2180–2183, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. E. Eren, N. Yilmaz, and O. Aydin, “High density lipoprotein and it's dysfunction,” The Open Biochemistry Journal, vol. 6, pp. 78–93, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  24. H. Soran, S. Hama, R. Yadav et al., “HDL functionality,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 23, pp. 353–366, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  25. M. Mackness, P. Durrington, and B. Mackness, “Paraoxonase 1 activity, concentration and genotype in cardiovascular disease,” Current Opinion in Lipidology, vol. 15, no. 4, pp. 399–404, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. M. I. Mackness, B. Mackness, and P. N. Durrington, “Paraoxonase and coronary heart disease,” Atherosclerosis Supplements, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 49–55, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. P. Kleemola, R. Freese, M. Jauhiainen, R. Pahlman, G. Alfthan, and M. Mutanen, “Dietary determinants of serum paraoxonase activity in healthy humans,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 160, no. 2, pp. 425–432, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. E. Thomàs-Moyà, M. Gianotti, A. M. Proenza, and I. Lladó, “Paraoxonase 1 response to a high-fat diet: gender differences in the factors involved,” Molecular Medicine, vol. 13, no. 3-4, pp. 203–209, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. E. Thomàs-Moyà, M. Gianotti, I. Lladó, and A. M. Proenza, “Effects of caloric restriction and gender on rat serum paraoxonase 1 activity,” Journal of Nutritional Biochemistry, vol. 17, no. 3, pp. 197–203, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. E. Thomàs-Moyà, Y. Gómez-Pérez, M. Fiol, M. Gianotti, I. Lladó, and A. M. Proenza, “Gender related differences in paraoxonase 1 response to high-fat diet-induced oxidative stress,” Obesity, vol. 16, no. 10, pp. 2232–2238, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. W. B. Ershler and E. T. Keller, “Age-associated increased interleukin-6 gene expression, late-life diseases, and frailty,” Annual Review of Medicine, vol. 51, pp. 245–270, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. J. An, R. C. J. Ribeiro, P. Webb et al., “Estradiol repression of tumor necrosis factor-α transcription requires estrogen receptor activation function-2 and is enhanced by coactivators,” Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 96, no. 26, pp. 15161–15166, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. S. D. Imahara, S. Jelacic, C. E. Junker, and G. E. O'Keefe, “The influence of gender on human innate immunity,” Surgery, vol. 138, no. 2, pp. 275–282, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. B. Ludescher, A. Najib, S. Baar et al., “Gender specific correlations of adrenal gland size and body fat distribution: a whole body MRI study,” Hormone and Metabolic Research, vol. 39, no. 7, pp. 515–518, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. J. N. Fain, “Release of interleukins and other inflammatory cytokines by human adipose tissue is enhanced in obesity and primarily due to the nonfat cells,” Vitamins and Hormones, vol. 74, pp. 443–477, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. T. Ahonen, M. Vanhala, H. Kautiainen, E. Kumpusalo, and J. Saltevo, “Sex differences in the association of adiponectin and low-grade inflammation with changes in the body mass index from youth to middle age,” Gender Medicine, vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 1–8, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. C. M. Halleux, M. Takahashi, M. L. Delporte et al., “Secretion of adiponectin and regulation of apM1 gene expression in human visceral adipose tissue,” Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications, vol. 288, no. 5, pp. 1102–1107, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. N. Maeda, M. Takahashi, T. Funahashi et al., “PPARγ ligands increase expression and plasma concentrations of adiponectin, an adipose-derived protein,” Diabetes, vol. 50, no. 9, pp. 2094–2099, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. Y. Matsuzawa, “Establishment of a concept of visceral fat syndrome and discovery of adiponectin,” Proceedings of the Japan Academy. Series B, vol. 86, pp. 131–141, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  40. H. Huang, W. Mai, D. Liu, Y. Hao, J. Tao, and Y. Dong, “The oxidation ratio of LDL: a predictor for coronary artery disease,” Disease Markers, vol. 24, no. 6, pp. 341–349, 2008. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. Y. Huang, Y. Hu, W. Mai et al., “Plasma oxidized low-density lipoprotein is an independent risk factor in young patients with coronary artery disease,” Disease Markers, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 295–301, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. H. Huang, R. Ma, D. Liu et al., “Oxidized low-density lipoprotein cholesterol and the ratio in the diagnosis and evaluation of therapeutic effect in patients with coronary artery disease,” Disease Markers, vol. 33, pp. 295–302, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  43. C. Zoccali, R. Maio, F. Mallamaci, G. Sesti, and F. Perticone, “Uric acid and endothelial dysfunction in essential hypertension,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 5, pp. 1466–1471, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. D. I. Feig and R. J. Johnson, “Hyperuricemia in childhood primary hypertension,” Hypertension, vol. 42, no. 3, pp. 247–252, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. F. J. Nieto, C. Iribarren, M. D. Gross, G. W. Comstock, and R. G. Cutler, “Uric acid and serum antioxidant capacity: a reaction to atherosclerosis?” Atherosclerosis, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 131–139, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. S. L. Rodrigues, M. P. Baldo, D. P. Capingana et al., “Gender distribution of serum uric acid and cardiovascular risk factors: population based study,” Arquivos Brasileiros de Cardiologia, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 13–21, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. D. J. Eapen, G. L. Kalra, L. Rifai, C. A. Eapen, N. Merchant, and B. V. Khan, “Raising HDL cholesterol in women,” International Journal of Women's Health, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 181–191, 2009. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. Y. Huang, A. Von Eckardstein, S. Wu, and G. Assmann, “Cholesterol efflux, cholesterol esterification, and cholesteryl ester transfer by LpA-I and LpA-I/A-II in native plasma,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 15, no. 9, pp. 1412–1418, 1995. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. J. C. Stevenson, D. Crook, and I. F. Godsland, “Influence of age and menopause on serum lipids and lipoproteins in healthy women,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 98, no. 1, pp. 83–90, 1993. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. Z. Li, J. R. McNamara, J.-C. Fruchart et al., “Effects of gender and menopausal status on plasma lipoprotein subspecies and particle sizes,” Journal of Lipid Research, vol. 37, no. 9, pp. 1886–1896, 1996. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. V. Zago, S. Sanguinetti, F. Brites et al., “Impaired high density lipoprotein antioxidant activity in healthy postmenopausal women,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 177, no. 1, pp. 203–210, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. P. M. Laplaud, T. Dantoine, and M. J. Chapman, “Paraoxonase as a risk marker for cardiovascular disease: facts and hypotheses,” Clinical Chemistry and Laboratory Medicine, vol. 36, no. 7, pp. 431–441, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. P. N. Durrington, B. Mackness, and M. I. Mackness, “Paraoxonase and atherosclerosis,” Arteriosclerosis, Thrombosis, and Vascular Biology, vol. 21, no. 4, pp. 473–480, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. M. J. Horter, S. Sondermann, H. Reinecke et al., “Associations of HDL phospholipids and paraoxonase activity with coronary heart disease in postmenopausal women,” Acta Physiologica Scandinavica, vol. 176, no. 2, pp. 123–130, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. S. C. Hong, S. W. Yoo, G. J. Cho et al., “Correlation between estrogens and serum adipocytokines in premenopausal and postmenopausal women,” Menopause, vol. 14, no. 5, pp. 835–840, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. B. J. Arsenault, C. P. Earnest, J.-P. Després, S. N. Blair, and T. S. Church, “Obesity, coffee consumption and CRP levels in postmenopausal overweight/obese women: importance of hormone replacement therapy use,” European Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 63, no. 12, pp. 1419–1424, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. Danesh, J. G. Wheeler, G. M. Hirschfield et al., “C-reactive protein and other circulating markers of inflammation in the prediction of coronary heart disease,” The New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 350, no. 14, pp. 1387–1397, 2004. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. T. Goodarzi, H. Babaahmadi-Rezaei, M. Kadkhodaei-Eliaderani, and S. Haddadinezhad, “Relationship of serum adiponectin with blood lipids, HbA1c, and hs-CRP in type II diabetic postmenopausal women,” Journal of Clinical Laboratory Analysis, vol. 21, no. 3, pp. 197–200, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  59. Y. Loucif, J. Méthot, K. Tremblay, D. Brisson, and D. Gaudet, “Contribution of adiponectin to the cardiometabolic risk of postmenopausal women with loss-of-function lipoprotein lipase gene mutations,” Menopause, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 558–562, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. R. Agrawal, G. Prelevic, G. S. Conway, N. N. Payne, J. Ginsburg, and H. S. Jacobs, “Serum vascular endothelial growth factor concentrations in postmenopausal women: the effect of hormone replacement therapy,” Fertility and Sterility, vol. 73, no. 1, pp. 56–60, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. H. Sumino, T. Nakamura, S. Ichikawa et al., “Serum level of vascular endothelial growth factor is decreased by hormone replacement therapy in postmenopausal women without hypercholesterolemia,” Atherosclerosis, vol. 148, no. 1, pp. 189–195, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus