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Disease Markers
Volume 35, Issue 4, Pages 235–241
Research Article

Inflammatory Cytokines and the Risk of Cardiovascular Complications in Type 2 Diabetes

1Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, Kuwait University, The 4th Ring Road, Jabriya, P.O. Box 31470, 90805 Sulaibikhat, Kuwait
2Department of Medicine, Faculty of Medicine, Kuwait University, The 4th Ring Road, Jabriya, P.O. Box 24923, 13110 Safat, Kuwait

Received 26 June 2013; Accepted 17 August 2013

Academic Editor: Silvia Persichilli

Copyright © 2013 Fadia Mahmoud and Ebaa Al-Ozairi. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


This study evaluates peripheral blood T lymphocyte expression of inflammatory and proinflammatory cytokines as well as T regulatory (Treg) (FOXP3+CD25+CD4+) cells in type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Participants included 40 T2DM and 30 healthy control subjects. Twenty-four patients had no complications while 16 were afflicted with coronary heart disease (CHD). Relative to healthy subjects, all T2DM patients showed a significant increase in expression of CD4+IFN-ϒ+, CD4+TNF-α+, and CD4+IL-8+ T cells ( ) as well as CD4+IL-6+, CD4+IL-1β+, and IL-17+ T cells ( ) while the ratios of Treg/Th1(CD4+IFN-ϒ+) and Treg/Th-17(CD4+IL-17+) cells were significantly decreased ( and ). T2DM patients with CHD showed a significant increase in CD4+IFN-ϒ+, CD4+TNF-α+, and CD4+IL-17+ T cells and a significant decrease in Treg/Th1 and Treg/IL-17 cells compared to T2DM patients without CHD ( ). In CHD-afflicted T2DM, HbA1c correlated positively with CD4+IFN-ϒ+ T cells ( ), HDL correlated negatively with each of CD4+IL-8+ T cells and CD4+IL-17+ T cells ( ), and LDL correlated positively with CD4+IL-1β+ T cells ( ). Conclusion. This study shows that hyperglycemia and dyslipidemia correlate with increased inflammatory cytokine expression and suggests the involvement of T cells in the development of diabetes and its complications.