Disease Markers / 2013 / Article / Fig 1

Review Article

Oxidative Stress-Related Biomarkers in Essential Hypertension and Ischemia-Reperfusion Myocardial Damage

Figure 1

Cellular response to reactive oxygen species. Several pathophysiological conditions determine an increase on intracellular ROS levels. Transcription factor induction is dependent in the ROS levels. Low to moderate ROS levels induce Nrf-2 activation which increases the expression of antioxidant enzymes such as catalase, glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, glutathione S-transferase, NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1, and heme oxygenase-1 while high levels of ROS induce NF-κB activation, which trigger a proinflammatory response characterized by increased levels of TNF-α, IL-1β, IL-6, and IL-8, increased expression of adhesion molecules, such as E-selectin, VCAM-1, and ICAM-1, and promotion of oxidative stress. AA: arachidonic acid; CAT: catalase; GSH-Px: glutathione peroxidase; GSR: glutathione reductase; glutathione S-transferase: GSTs; HO-1: heme oxygenase-1; NADPH:quinone oxidoreductase 1: NQO1; IL-1 β: Interleukin 1β; IL-6: Interleukin 6; IL-8: Interleukin 8; NF-κB: nuclear factor kappa-light-chain-enhancer of activated B cells; Nrf-2: nuclear factor- (erythroid-derived 2-) like 2.
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