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Disease Markers
Volume 2014, Article ID 126954, 8 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/126954
Review Article

CC Chemokine Receptor 5: The Interface of Host Immunity and Cancer

Laboratory of Polymorphism and Application Study of DNA, Department of Pathological Sciences, Biological Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, Celso Garcia Cid highway, Pr 445, Km 380, 86057-970 Londrina, PR, Brazil

Received 27 June 2013; Accepted 30 October 2013; Published 19 January 2014

Academic Editor: Dinesh Kumbhare

Copyright © 2014 Carlos Eduardo Coral de Oliveira et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Solid tumors are embedded in a stromal microenvironment consisting of immune cells, such as macrophages and lymphocytes, as well as nonimmune cells, such as endothelial cells and fibroblasts. Chemokines are a type of small secreted chemotactic cytokine and together with their receptors play key roles in the immune defense. Critically, they regulate cancer cellular migration and also contribute to their proliferation and survival. The CCR5 chemokine receptor is involved in leucocytes chemotaxis to sites of inflammation and plays an important role in the macrophages, T cells, and monocytes recruitment. Additionally, CCR5 may have an indirect effect on cancer progression by controlling the antitumor immune response, since it has been demonstrated that its expression could promote tumor growth and contribute to tumor metastasis, in different types of malignant tumors. Furthermore, it was demonstrated that a CCR5 antagonist may inhibit tumor growth, consisting of a possible therapeutic target. In this context, the present review focuses on the establishment of CCR5 within the interface of host immunity, tumor microenvironment, and its potential as a targeting to immunotherapy.