Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 2014, Article ID 278715, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/278715
Review Article

Chemokines as Potential Markers in Pediatric Renal Diseases

1Unidade de Nefrologia Pediátrica, Departamento de Pediatria, Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
2Instituto Nacional de Ciência e Tecnologia em Medicina Molecular (INCT-MM), Faculdade de Medicina, UFMG, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
3Laboratório Interdisciplinar de Investigação Médica Faculdade de Medicina, UFMG, Avenida Alfredo Balena 190, 2nd Floor, Room No.281, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
4Departamento de Nefrologia, Santa Casa de Misericordia de Belo Horizonte, 30130-100 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil
5Laboratório de Imunofarmacologia, Departamento de Bioquímica e Imunologia, Instituto de Ciências Biológicas, UFMG, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil

Received 29 June 2013; Accepted 2 January 2014; Published 17 February 2014

Academic Editor: Francisco Blanco-Vaca

Copyright © 2014 Ana Cristina Simões e Silva et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. I. F. Charo and R. M. Ransohoff, “Mechanisms of disease: the many roles of chemokines and chemokine receptors in inflammation,” New England Journal of Medicine, vol. 354, no. 6, pp. 610–621, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  2. K. Ley, C. Laudanna, M. I. Cybulsky, and S. Nourshargh, “Getting to the site of inflammation: the leukocyte adhesion cascade updated,” Nature Reviews Immunology, vol. 7, no. 9, pp. 678–689, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  3. R. M. Ransohoff, “Chemokines and chemokine receptors: standing at the crossroads of immunobiology and neurobiology,” Immunity, vol. 31, no. 5, pp. 711–721, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. S. Segerer and C. E. Alpers, “Chemokines and chemokine receptors in renal pathology,” Current Opinion in Nephrology and Hypertension, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 243–249, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  5. S. Segerer, P. J. Nelson, and D. Schlöndorff, “Chemokines, chemokine receptors, and renal disease: from basic science to pathophysiologic and therapeutic studies,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 11, no. 1, pp. 152–176, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. C. Viedt, R. Dechend, J. Fei, G. M. Hänsch, J. Kreuzer, and S. R. Orth, “MCP-1 induces inflammatory activation of human tubular epithelial cells: involvement of the transcription factors, nuclear factor-κB and activating protein-1,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 13, no. 6, pp. 1534–1547, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. F. O. Souto, A. L. Teixeira, R. C. Russo et al., “Immune mediators in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome: evidence for a relation between interleukin 8 and proteinuria,” Pediatric Research, vol. 64, no. 6, pp. 637–642, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. C. Araya, L. Diaz, C. Wasserfall et al., “T regulatory cell function in idiopathic minimal lesion nephrotic syndrome,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 24, no. 9, pp. 1691–1698, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. M. A. Vasconcelos, M. C. F. Bouzada, K. D. Silveira et al., “Urinary levels of TGF β-1 and of cytokines in patients with prenatally detected nephrouropathies,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 739–747, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. A. B. Pereira, A. L. Teixeira, N. A. Rezende et al., “Urinary chemokines and anti-inflammatory molecules in renal transplanted patients as potential biomarkers of graft function: a prospective study,” International Urology and Nephrology, vol. 44, pp. 1539–1548, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. A. C. S. Santos Jr., E. M. Lima, M. G. M. G. Penido et al., “Plasma and urinary levels of cytokines in patients with idiopathic hypercalciuria,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 27, pp. 941–948, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. H. R. Vianna, C. M. Soares, K. D. Silveira et al., “Cytokines in chronic kidney disease: potential link of MCP-1 and dyslipidemia in glomerular diseases,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 28, no. 3, pp. 463–469, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  13. J. Sellares, J. Reeve, A. Loupy et al., “Molecular diagnosis of antibody-mediated rejection in human kidney transplants,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 971–983, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  14. P. F. Halloran, A. B. Pereira, J. Chang et al., “Potential impact of microarray diagnosis of T cell-mediated rejection in kidney transplants: the INTERCOM study,” American Journal of Transplantation, vol. 13, no. 9, pp. 2352–2363, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  15. J.-N. Sheu, M.-C. Chen, K.-H. Lue et al., “Serum and urine levels of interleukin-6 and interleukin-8 in children with acute pyelonephritis,” Cytokine, vol. 36, no. 5-6, pp. 276–282, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. L. Artifoni, S. Negrisolo, G. Montini et al., “Interleukin-8 and CXCR1 receptor functional polymorphisms and susceptibility to acute pyelonephritis,” Journal of Urology, vol. 177, no. 3, pp. 1102–1106, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. L. Gu, S. C. Tseng, and B. J. Rollins, “Monocyte chemoattractant protein-1,” Chemical Immunology, vol. 72, pp. 7–29, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. A. Yadav, V. Saini, and S. Arora, “MCP-1: chemoattractant with a role beyond immunity: a review,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 411, no. 21-22, pp. 1570–1579, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. M. J. Kim and F. W. K. Tam, “Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in renal disease,” Clinica Chimica Acta, vol. 412, no. 23-24, pp. 2022–2030, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. S. D. Marks, V. Shah, C. Pilkington, and K. Tullus, “Urinary monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 correlates with disease activity in lupus nephritis,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 25, no. 11, pp. 2283–2288, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. T. Wada, K. Furuichi, N. Sakai et al., “Up-regulation of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in tubulointerstitial lesions of human diabetic nephropathy,” Kidney International, vol. 58, no. 4, pp. 1492–1499, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. I. N. Bobkova, N. V. Chebotareva, L. V. Kozlovskaya, V. A. Varshavsky, and E. P. Golitsyna, “Urine excretion of a monocytic chemotaxic protein-1 and a transforming growth factor beta1 as an indicator of chronic glomerulonephritis progression,” Terapevticheskii Arkhiv, vol. 78, no. 5, pp. 9–14, 2006. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. A. A. Eddy and J. S. Warren, “Expression and function of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 in experimental nephrotic syndrome,” Clinical Immunology and Immunopathology, vol. 78, no. 2, pp. 140–151, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  24. M. Stangou, E. Alexopoulos, A. Papagianni et al., “Urinary levels of epidermal growth factor, interleukin-6 and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 may act as predictor markers of renal function outcome in immunoglobulin A nephropathy,” Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 6, pp. 613–620, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. S. Giunti, S. Pinach, L. Arnaldi et al., “The MCP-1/CCR2 system has direct proinflammatory effects in human mesangial cells,” Kidney International, vol. 69, no. 5, pp. 856–863, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. P. E. Kolattukudy and J. Niu, “Inflammation, endoplasmic reticulum stress, autophagy, and the monocyte chemoattractant protein-1/CCR2 pathway,” Circulation Research, vol. 110, no. 1, pp. 174–189, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. B. Dubiński, M. Boratyńska, W. Kopeć, P. Szyber, D. Patrzałek, and M. Klinger, “Activated cells in urine and monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 (MCP-1)—sensitive rejection markers in renal graft recipients,” Transplant Immunology, vol. 18, no. 3, pp. 203–207, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. J. Ho, C. Wiebe, D. N. Rush et al., “Increased urinary CCL2: Cr ratio at 6 months is associated with late renal allograft loss,” Transplantation, vol. 95, no. 4, pp. 595–602, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  29. A. M. Krensky and Y.-T. Ahn, “Mechanisms of disease: regulation of RANTES (CCL5) in renal disease,” Nature Clinical Practice Nephrology, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. 164–170, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. J. D. Ooi, A. R. Kitching, and S. R. Holdsworth, “Review: T helper 17 cells: their role in glomerulonephritis,” Nephrology, vol. 15, no. 5, pp. 513–521, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. E. Nogueira, S. Hamour, D. Sawant et al., “Serum IL-17 and IL-23 levels and autoantigen-specific Th17 cells are elevated in patients with ANCA-associated vasculitis,” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 25, no. 7, pp. 2209–2217, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. L. Cosmi, F. Liotta, E. Maggi, S. Romagnani, and F. Annunziato, “Th17 cells: new players in asthma pathogenesis,” Allergy, vol. 66, no. 8, pp. 989–998, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. N. Y. Hemdan, “Anti-cancer versus cancer-promoting effects of the interleukin-17-producing T helper cells,” Immunology Letters, vol. 149, no. 1-2, pp. 123–133, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  34. M. Kontogiorgi, P. Opsimoulis, P. Kopterides et al., “Pulmonary nocardiosis in an immunocompetent patient with COPD: the role of defective innate response,” Heart & Lung, vol. 42, no. 4, pp. 247–250, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  35. M. Bazina, M. Glavina-Durdov, M. Šćukanec-Špoljar et al., “Epidemiology of renal disease in children in the region of Southern Croatia: a 10-year review of regional renal biopsy databases,” Medical Science Monitor, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. CR172–CR176, 2007. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. M. Stangou, A. Papagianni, C. Bantis et al., “Up-regulation of urinary markers predict outcome in IgA nephropathy but their predictive value is influenced by treatment with steroids and azathioprine,” Clinical Nephrology, vol. 80, no. 3, pp. 203–210, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  37. F.-J. Lin, G.-R. Jiang, J.-P. Shan, C. Zhu, J. Zou, and X.-R. Wu, “Imbalance of regulatory T cells to Th17 cells in IgA nephropathy,” Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, vol. 72, no. 3, pp. 221–229, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  38. R. Mina and H. I. Brunner, “Pediatric lupus-are there differences in presentation, genetics, response to therapy, and damage accrual compared with adult lupus?” Rheumatic Disease Clinics of North America, vol. 36, no. 1, pp. 53–80, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. J. Barbado, D. Martin, L. Vega et al., “MCP-1 in urine as biomarker of disease activity in Systemic Lupus Erythematosus,” Cytokine, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 583–586, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  40. L. Schiffer, P. Kümpers, A. M. Davalos-Misslitz et al., “B-cell-attracting chemokine CXCL13 as a marker of disease activity and renal involvement in systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE),” Nephrology Dialysis Transplantation, vol. 24, no. 12, pp. 3708–3712, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. M. Postal, K. O. Peliçari, N. A. Sinicato, R. Marini, L. T. Costallat, and S. Appenzeller, “Th1/Th2 cytokine profile in childhood-onset systemic lupus erythematosus,” Cytokine, vol. 61, no. 3, pp. 785–791, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  42. K. F. Koenig, I. Groeschl, S. S. Pesickova, V. Tesar, U. Eisenberger, and M. Trendelenburg, “Serum cytokine profile in patients with active lupus nephritis,” Cytokine, vol. 60, no. 2, pp. 410–416, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  43. D. Y. Chen, Y. M. Chen, M. C. Wen, T. Y. Hsieh, W. T. Hung, and J. L. Lan, “The potential role of Th17 cells and Th17-related cytokines in the pathogenesis of lupus nephritis,” Lupus, vol. 21, no. 13, pp. 1385–1396, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  44. M. Edelbauer, S. Kshirsagar, M. Riedl et al., “Activity of childhood lupus nephritis is linked to altered T cell and cytokine homeostasis,” Journal of Clinical Immunology, vol. 32, no. 3, pp. 477–487, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  45. M. H. Cho, E. H. Hong, T. H. Lee, and C. W. Ko, “Pathophysiology of minimal change nephrotic syndrome and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis,” Nephrology, vol. 12, supplement 3, pp. S11–S14, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. R. P. Woroniecki, I. F. Shatat, K. Supe, Z. Du, and F. J. Kaskel, “Urinary cytokines and steroid responsiveness in idiopathic nephrotic syndrome of childhood,” American Journal of Nephrology, vol. 28, no. 1, pp. 83–90, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  47. T. Aizawa, T. Imaizumi, K. Tsuruga et al., “Urinary fractalkine and monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 as possible predictors of disease activity of childhood glomerulonephritis,” The Tohoku Journal of Experimental Medicine, vol. 231, no. 4, pp. 265–270, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  48. M. C. Carr and S. S. Kim, “Prenatal management of urogenital disorders,” Urologic Clinics of North America, vol. 37, no. 2, pp. 149–158, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  49. S. Klahr and J. Morrissey, “Obstructive nephropathy and renal fibrosis,” The American Journal of Physiology—Renal Physiology, vol. 283, no. 5, pp. F861–F875, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. R. L. Chevalier, B. A. Thornhill, M. S. Forbes, and S. C. Kiley, “Mechanisms of renal injury and progression of renal disease in congenital obstructive nephropathy,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 687–697, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. S. Klahr, “Obstructive nephropathy,” Kidney International, vol. 54, no. 1, pp. 286–300, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. J. G. Wen, J. Frøkiær, T. M. Jørgensen, and J. C. Djurhuus, “Obstructive nephropathy: an update of the experimental research,” Urological Research, vol. 27, pp. 29–39, 1999. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  53. D. G. Matsell and A. F. Tarantal, “Experimental models of fetal obstructive nephropathy,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 470–476, 2002. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. L. C. Borish and J. W. Steinke, “Cytokines and chemokines,” Journal of Allergy and Clinical Immunology, vol. 111, no. 2, pp. S460–S475, 2003. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  55. M. Stephan, S. Conrad, T. Eggert, R. Heuer, S. Fernandez, and H. Huland, “Urinary concentration and tissue messenger RNA expression of monocyte chemoattractant protein-1 as an indicator of the degree of hydronephrotic atrophy in partial ureteral obstruction,” Journal of Urology, vol. 167, no. 3, pp. 1497–1502, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  56. V. Vielhauer, H.-J. Anders, M. Mack et al., “Obstructive nephropathy in the mouse: progressive fibrosis correlates with tubulointerstitial chemokine expression and accumulation of CC chemokine receptor 2- and 5-positive leukocytes,” Journal of the American Society of Nephrology, vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 1173–1187, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. J. M. Crisman, L. L. Richards, D. P. Valach, D. F. Franzoni, and J. R. Diamond, “Chemokine expression in the obstructed kidney,” Experimental Nephrology, vol. 9, no. 4, pp. 241–248, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. M. G. Madsen, “Urinary biomarkers in hydronephrosis,” Danish Medical Journal, vol. 60, no. 2, Article ID B4582, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  59. P. L. Zhang, C. A. Peters, and S. Rosen, “Ureteropelvic junction obstruction: morphological and clinical studies,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 14, no. 8-9, pp. 820–826, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. K. Ismaili, M. Hall, A. Piepsz, M. Alexander, C. Schulman, and F. E. Avni, “Insights into the pathogenesis and natural history of fetuses with renal pelvis dilatation,” European Urology, vol. 48, no. 2, pp. 207–214, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. A. Piepsz, “Antenatally detected hydronephrosis,” Seminars in Nuclear Medicine, vol. 37, no. 4, pp. 249–260, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. K. C. Hubert and J. S. Palmer, “Current diagnosis and management of fetal genitourinary abnormalities,” Urologic Clinics of North America, vol. 34, no. 1, pp. 89–101, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Decramer, J.-L. Bascands, and J. P. Schanstra, “Non-invasive markers of ureteropelvic junction obstruction,” World Journal of Urology, vol. 25, no. 5, pp. 457–465, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  64. R. S. Lee, “Biomarkers for pediatric urological disease,” Current Opinion in Urology, vol. 19, no. 4, pp. 397–401, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. G. Grandaliano, L. Gesualdo, F. Bartoli et al., “MCP-1 and EGF renal expression and urine excretion in human congenital obstructive nephropathy,” Kidney International, vol. 58, no. 1, pp. 182–192, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. F. Bartoli, L. Gesualdo, G. Paradies et al., “Renal expression of monocyte chemotactic protein-1 and epidermal growth factor in children with obstructive hydronephrosis,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 35, no. 4, pp. 569–572, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. F. Bartoli, R. Penza, G. Aceto et al., “Urinary epidermal growth factor, monocyte chemotactic protein-1, and β2-microglobulin in children with ureteropelvic junction obstruction,” Journal of Pediatric Surgery, vol. 46, no. 3, pp. 530–536, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  68. M. G. Madsen, R. Nørregaard, J. Palmfeldt, L. H. Olsen, J. Frøkiær, and T. M. Jørgensen, “Epidermal growth factor and monocyte chemotactic peptide-1: potential biomarkers of urinary tract obstruction in children with hydronephrosis,” Journal of Pediatric Urology, vol. 9, no. 6, pp. 838–845, 2013. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  69. K. Taranta-Janusz, A. Wasilewska, W. Dębek, and M. Waszkiewicz-Stojda, “Urinary cytokine profiles in unilateral congenital hydronephrosis,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 27, no. 11, pp. 2107–2113, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar
  70. J. M. P. Silva, J. S. S. Diniz, A. C. S. Silva, M. V. Azevedo, M. R. Pimenta, and E. A. Oliveira, “Predictive factors of chronic kidney disease in severe vesicoureteral reflux,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 21, no. 9, pp. 1285–1292, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. A. C. Simoes e Silva, J. M. P. Silva, J. S. S. Diniz et al., “Risk of hypertension in primary vesicoureteral reflux,” Pediatric Nephrology, vol. 22, no. 3, pp. 459–462, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  72. B. Chertin, A. Farkas, and P. Puri, “Epidermal growth factor and monocyte chemotactic peptide-1 expression in reflux nephropathy,” European Urology, vol. 44, no. 1, pp. 144–149, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. M. Haraoka, K. Senoh, N. Ogata, M. Furukawa, T. Matsumoto, and J. Kumazawa, “Elevated interleukin-8 levels in the urine of children with renal scarring and/or vesicoureteral reflux,” Journal of Urology, vol. 155, no. 2, pp. 678–680, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  74. E. Galanakis, M. Bitsori, H. Dimitriou, C. Giannakopoulou, N. S. Karkavitsas, and M. Kalmanti, “Urine interleukin-8 as a marker of vesicoureteral reflux in infants,” Pediatrics, vol. 117, no. 5, pp. e863–e867, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  75. A. R. Merrikhi, M. Keivanfar, A. Gheissari, and F. Mousavinasab, “Urine interlukein-8 as a diagnostic test for vesicoureteral reflux in children,” Journal of the Pakistan Medical Association, vol. 62, supplement 2, no. 3, pp. S52–S54, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  76. Biomarkers Definitions Working Group, “Biomarkers and surrogate end-points: preferred definitions and conceptual framework,” Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, vol. 69, pp. 89–95, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar