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Disease Markers
Volume 2014 (2014), Article ID 513158, 12 pages
Review Article

Molecular Markers for Breast Cancer: Prediction on Tumor Behavior

Laboratory of Polymorphism and Application Study of DNA, Department of Pathological Sciences, Biological Sciences Center, State University of Londrina, 86057-970 Londrina, Brazil

Received 24 June 2013; Revised 4 October 2013; Accepted 12 November 2013; Published 28 January 2014

Academic Editor: Andreas Pich

Copyright © 2014 Bruna Karina Banin Hirata et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.


Breast cancer is one of the most common cancers with greater than 1,300,000 cases and 450,000 deaths each year worldwide. The development of breast cancer involves a progression through intermediate stages until the invasive carcinoma and finally into metastatic disease. Given the variability in clinical progression, the identification of markers that could predict the tumor behavior is particularly important in breast cancer. The determination of tumor markers is a useful tool for clinical management in cancer patients, assisting in diagnostic, staging, evaluation of therapeutic response, detection of recurrence and metastasis, and development of new treatment modalities. In this context, this review aims to discuss the main tumor markers in breast carcinogenesis. The most well-established breast molecular markers with prognostic and/or therapeutic value like hormone receptors, HER-2 oncogene, Ki-67, and p53 proteins, and the genes for hereditary breast cancer will be presented. Furthermore, this review shows the new molecular targets in breast cancer: CXCR4, caveolin, miRNA, and FOXP3, as promising candidates for future development of effective and targeted therapies, also with lower toxicity.