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Disease Markers
Volume 2014, Article ID 689795, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/689795
Clinical Study

Diagnostic and Prognostic Role of Preoperative Circulating CA 15-3, CA 125, and Beta-2 Microglobulin in Renal Cell Carcinoma

1Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation-Urology, Andrology and Kidney Transplantation Unit, University of Bari, piazza G. Cesare, 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
2Department of Biomedical Sciences, Section of Hygiene, University of Bari, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
3Department of Emergency and Organ Transplantation-Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, University of Bari, Piazza G. Cesare 11, 70124 Bari, Italy
4Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences-Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation Unit, University of Foggia, Viale Pinto 1, 71100 Foggia, Italy

Received 22 August 2013; Revised 1 December 2013; Accepted 2 January 2014; Published 17 February 2014

Academic Editor: Jeffrey C. Gildersleeve

Copyright © 2014 Giuseppe Lucarelli et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

CA 15-3, CA 125 and β-2 microglobulin are three common tumor markers currently used for diagnosis, prognosis, assessment of therapeutic response, and/or to evaluate recurrence in breast and ovarian cancer and malignant lymphoproliferative disorders, respectively. In the present prospective study we assessed the role of these three serum proteins as biomarkers for renal cell carcinoma (RCC), as well as any association between tumor marker levels and clinical-pathological parameters. CA 15-3, CA 125, and β-2 microglobulin were preoperatively measured in 332 patients who underwent nephrectomy for RCC. Estimates of cancer-specific survival (CSS) was calculated according to the Kaplan-Meier method. Multivariate analysis was performed to identify the most significant variables for predicting CSS. Preoperatively, 35.2% (), 9.6% () and 30.4% () of the patients had abnormal levels of CA 15-3, CA 125 and β-2 microglobulin, respectively. Statistically significant differences resulted between CA 15-3, CA 125 and β-2 microglobulin values and tumor size, Fuhrman grade, presence of lymph node, and visceral metastases. CSS was significantly decreased for patients with high levels of CA 15-3, CA 125, and β-2 microglobulin (, and , resp.). At multivariate analysis only age, the presence of visceral metastases, and high levels of CA 15-3 were independent adverse prognostic factors for CSS.