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Disease Markers
Volume 2014, Article ID 930206, 7 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/930206
Review Article

Resistin: A Potential Biomarker for Periodontitis Influenced Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Induced Periodontitis

1Department of Periodontics, A.M.E’s Dental College and Hospital, Raichur, Karnataka 584103, India
2Department of Periodontics and Oral Implantology, Dr. DY Patil Dental College and Hospital, Dr. DY Patil Vidyapeeth, Pune 411018, India
3Department of Prosthodontics, Dr. DY Patil Dental School, Knowledge City, Lohegaon, Pune 412105, India

Received 7 March 2013; Revised 1 July 2013; Accepted 12 November 2013; Published 12 February 2014

Academic Editor: Mariann Harangi

Copyright © 2014 Archana Devanoorkar et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Biomarkers are highly specific and sensitive indicators of disease activity. Resistin is a recently discovered adipocytokine, having a potent biomarker quality. Initially resistin was thought to be produced by adipocytes alone; however, emerging evidence suggests that it is also produced in abundance by various cells of the immunoinflammatory system, indicating its role in various chronic inflammatory diseases. Data suggests that resistin plays a role in obesity, insulin resistance, cardiovascular diseases, and periodontitis. Resistin derived its name from the original observation that it induced insulin resistance (resist-in: resist insulin) in mice and is downregulated in mature murine adipocytes cultured in the presence of insulin sensitizing drugs like thiazolidinediones. It is well recognized that obesity, is associated with insulin resistance and diabetes. A three-way relationship has been established between diabetes, obesity and periodontitis. Recent evidence also suggests an association between obesity and increased risk for periodontitis. Our previous research showed incremental elevation of resistin with periodontal disease activity and a reduced level of resistin, after periodontal therapy. Thus resistin would be one of the molecular links connecting obesity, periodontitis, and diabetes and may serve as a marker that links periodontal disease with other systemic diseases. A Medline/PubMed search was carried out for keywords “Diabetes Mellitus,” “Periodontitis,” and “Resistin,” and all relevant research papers from 1990 in English were shortlisted and finalized based on their importance. This review provides an insight into the biological action of resistin and its possible role in periodontitis influenced diabetes mellitus and diabetes induced periodontitis.