Disease Markers / 2014 / Article / Tab 1

Review Article

Resistin: A Potential Biomarker for Periodontitis Influenced Diabetes Mellitus and Diabetes Induced Periodontitis

Table 1

Major effects of key adipocytokines on the immune and vascular systems [28].

AdipocytokineImmune system effectsVascular effects [29]

LeptinInflammatory increase in T cell activation 
and cytokine release proliferation promotes 
Th1 response increases NK cell activation 
Increases macrophage activation and cytokine release (TNF-a/IL-6 etc.) 
Activates neutrophils and increases their chemotaxis and oxidative burst
Prevents inflammatory damage in 
conditions of overt immune system stimulation
Induces endothelial dysfunction 
Increases blood pressure 
Atherosclerosis 
Increases ICAM and VCAM 
Plasma levels related to hard clinical endpoints 
but acutely releases NO from endothelium

AdiponectinAnti-inflammatory 
Decreases T cell activation and proliferation 
Inhibits NF-κB dependent cytokine release and adhesion molecule expression (including TNF-a/IL-6) 
Increases IL-10 
Inhibits phagocytosis and oxidative burst
Vasculoprotective 
Prevents atherosclerosis 
Is decreased in hypertension 
Correlated with HDL and inversely with LDL 
Plasma levels not related to hard endpoints

ResistinProinflammatory 
Activates NF-κB dependent cytokine release and adhesion molecule expression (including TNF-a/IL-6)
Pathogenic 
Impairs bradykinin dependent 
vasorelaxations (NO and EDHF) 
No effect on acetylcholine 
dependent vasorelaxations (NO) 
VEGF and MMP up regulation

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