Table 1: Characteristics of the included studies.

First author (Year)CountryResearch typeSample sizeAge (years)Periodontal parameters (mm)Oxidative stress biomarkers
(males/females)(mean ± SD or mean, min–max)(mean ± SD or median, min–max or 25%–75%)
CaseControlCaseControlCaseControl

Thomas (2014) [24]IndiaIntervention study50 (N/A)50 (N/A)35–6535–65N/AN/ASerum: TAOC, SOD
Thomas (2014) [25]IndiaIntervention study25 (N/A)25 (N/A)N/AN/AN/AN/ASerum: TAOC, catalase
Singh (2014) [26]IndiaCross-sectional38 (8/30)22 (6/16)37.5, 17–5827.5, 22–50PD: 3.61 (2.31–4.96)
CAL: 3.99 (1.66–6.79)
PD: 1.19 (0.17–2.18)
CAL: 0.15 (0.04–1.44)
Serum: SOD
Baltaciolu(2014) [27]TurkeyCase control30 (14/16)28 (13/15)32.70 ± 5.1628.14 ± 3.96PD: 3.60 (3–4.30)
CAL: 3.88 (3.38–4.30)
PD: 1 (0.25–1.50)
CAL: 1.25 (0.50–1.75)
Serum: TOS
Baltacıoğlu (2014) [28]TurkeyCase control33 (16/17)30 (16/14)32.55 ± 5.3230.10 ± 4.06PD: 4.03 (3.79–4.19)
CAL: 1.4 (1.15–1.65)
PD: 1 (0.5–1.2)
CAL: 0.75 (0.5–1.31)
Serum: MDA, TOS, TAOC, OSI
Chaudhary (2014) [29]IndiaIntervention study15 (9/6)15 (7/8)35.6 ± 5.7932.8 ± 6.38PD: 2.59 ± 0.23
CAL: 2.69 ± 0.22
PD: 1.53 ± 0.21
CAL: 1.45 ± 0.19
Plasma: ROM
Chakraborty (2014) [30]IndiaCase control20 (0/20)22 (0/22)35.90 ± 4.1433.13 ± 6.38PD: 3.30 ± 0.63
CAL: 3.93 ± 1.01
PD: 1.22 ± 0.63
CAL: 0.23 ± 0.32
Serum: SOD
Trivedi (2014) [14]IndiaCase control30 (11/19)30 (6/24)N/AN/APD: 4.16 ± 0.47
CAL: 4.73 ± 0.55
PD: 1.77 ± 0.21
CAL: 1.82 ± 0.21
Plasma: MDA
Pradeep (2013) [31]IndiaCase control15 (N/A)10 (N/A)35.80 ± 5.9328.20 ± 4.31PD: 6.93 ± 1.48
CAL: 6.13 ± 1.18
PD: 1.70 ± 0.48
CAL: N/A
Serum: HNE
Thomas (2013) [32]IndiaCase control50 (N/A)50 (N/A)N/AN/AN/AN/ASerum: glutathione, catalase, selenium
Akpinar (2013) [33]TurkeyIntervention study15 (7/8)10 (5/5)37.7 ± 5.937.0 ± 7.4PD: 5 (3–5)
CAL: 8 (7–10)
PD: 1 (1-2)
CAL: 0
Serum: TAS, TOS
Sezer (2013) [34]TurkeyCross-sectional20 (6/14)20 (6/14)45.50 ± 7.5040.75 ± 10.26PD: 3.42 ± 0.43
CAL: 3.69 ± 0.49
PD: 2.18 ± 0.90
CAL: 0.32 ± 0.23
Serum: TAS, TOS, ARE, CRL, LOOH, prolidase, OSI
Wadhwa (2013) [35]IndiaCase control20 (N/A)20 (N/A)N/AN/APD: 4.35 ± 0.56
CAL: 6.51 ± 0.40
PD: 0.84 ± 0.21
CAL: N/A
Serum: NO
Mani Sundar(2013) [36]IndiaCross-sectional20 (N/A)20 (N/A)25–5525–55N/AN/ASerum: NO
Konuganti (2012) [37]IndiaCase control15 (N/A)15 (N/A)N/AN/AN/AN/AWhole blood: TAOC
Patel (2012) [38]IndiaIntervention study10 (5/5)10 (5/5)35.10 ± 2.5135.10 ± 2.02PD: 6.1
CAL: 4.1
PD: 1.3
CAL: 0
Serum: GPx
Esen (2012) [39]TurkeyCase control20 (4/16)20 (4/16)42.85 ± 9.640.05 ± 9.8PD: 6.17 (5.33–6.50)
CAL: 6.33 (5.67–7.09)
PD: 1.92 (1.67–2.33)
CAL: 0.02 (0.01-0.02)
Serum: TAS, TOS, OSI
Dhotre (2012) [40]IndiaCase control25 (N/A)25 (N/A)(N/A)(N/A)N/AN/ASerum: MDA, NO, SOD, GPx
Plasma: TAOC
Tamaki (2011) [41]JapanIntervention study22 (10/12)22 (10/12)44.0 ± 19.243.9 ± 20.0PD: 2.1 (1.7–2.9)
CAL: 2.3 (1.8–3.0)
PD: 1.8 (1.6–1.9)
CAL: 1.8 (1.6–1.9)
Plasma: oxLDL, ROM, oxidative-index
Thomas (2010) [42]IndiaCase control20 (N/A)20 (N/A)N/AN/AN/AN/ASerum: vitamin C
Sulaiman(2010) [12]SyriaIntervention study30 (9/21)30 (9/21)41, 23–6534, 25–59PD: 3.43 ± 0.45
CAL: 3.52 ± 0.44
N/APlasma: TAOC
Wei (2010) [13]ChinaIntervention study48 (27/21)35 (19/16)40.1 ± 7.342.1 ± 7.7PD: 3.81 ± 0.44
CAL: 4.65 ± 0.91
PD: 1.21 ± 0.23
CAL: 0.49 ± 0.33
Serum: MDA, TOS, SOD
Menaka (2009) [43]IndiaCase control3030N/AN/AN/AN/ASerum: NO
Tamaki (2009) [44]JapanIntervention study19 (7/12)19 (7/12)46.8 ± 19.145.3 ± 20.7PD: 2.3 ± 0.7
CAL: 2.5 ± 0.9
PD: 1.7 ± 0.3
CAL: N/A
Plasma: ROM
Akalin (2009) [45]TurkeyCase control27 (0/27)25 (0/27)29.3 ± 3.9429.73 ± 3.71PD: 3.19 ± 0.16
CAL: 3.36 ± 0.25
PD: 1.25 ± 0.18
CAL: 1.49 ± 0.2
Serum: TAOC, SOD
Baltacioğlu (2008) [46]TurkeyCase control33 (17/16)24 (11/13)40.5 ± 5.539.3 ± 5.7PD: 4 (3–5.3)
CAL: 4.2 (2.5–7.2)
PD: 1.25 (0.5–1.9)
CAL: 0.3 (0–0.8)
Serum: protein carbonyl
Konopka (2007) [47]PolandCase control30 (15/15)25 (10/15)44.9, 35–5533.2, 22–50PD: 4.02 ± 0.84
CAL: N/A
PD: 1.94 ± 0.21
CAL: N/A
Serum: 8-OHdG, TAS
Akalin (2007) [48]TurkeyCase control36 (19/17)28 (13/15)40.66 ± 5.3138.5 ± 6.10PD: 3.92 ± 0.52
CAL: 4.45 ± 0.86
PD: 1.18 ± 0.38
CAL: 0.27 ± 0.25
Serum: MDA, TOS
Chapple (2007) [49]UKIntervention study35 (12/23)32 (N/A)N/AN/APD: 3.6 ± 0.5
CAL: N/A
PD: N/A
CAL: N/A
Plasma: TAOC
Baltacıoğlu(2006) [50]TurkeyCase control31 (0/31)26 (0/31)37.4 ± 5.437.1 ± 4.2PD: 3.56 ± 0.45
CAL: 3.82 ± 0.54
PD: 1.41 ± 0.25
CAL: 1.61 ± 0.27
Serum: TAOC, SOD
Chapple (2002) [51]UKCase control10 (5/5)10 (5/5)46.146.9PD: 2.9 ± 0.59
CAL: N/A
PD: N/A
CAL: N/A
Plasma: TAOC

PD: pocket depth or probing depth; CAL: clinical attachment level; TAOC: total antioxidant capacity; SOD: superoxide dismutase; TOS: total oxidant status; MDA: malondialdehyde; OSI: oxidative stress index; NO: nitric oxide; ROM: reactive oxygen metabolites; HNE: 4-Hydroxy-2-nonenal; TAS: total antioxidant status; ARE: arylesterase; CRL: ceruloplasmin; LOOH: lipid hydroperoxides; GPx: glutathione peroxidase; oxLDL: oxidized low-density lipoprotein; 8-OHdG: 8-hydroxy-deoxyguanosine; N/A: not available.