Table of Contents Author Guidelines Submit a Manuscript
Disease Markers
Volume 2014, Article ID 956835, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2014/956835
Review Article

Potential Uses, Limitations, and Basic Procedures of Micronuclei and Nuclear Abnormalities in Buccal Cells

1Programa Internacional, Facultad de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Guadalajara, 45129 Zapopan, JAL, Mexico
2Unidad de Investigación en Epidemiología Clínica, UMAE, HE, CMNO, IMSS, Guadalajara, JAL, Mexico
3Servicio de Medicina Interna, Reumatología e Inmunología Hospital General de Occidente SSJ, Zapopan, JAL, Mexico
4Unidad Académica de Medicina, Universidad Autónoma de Nayarit, 63155 Tepic, NAY, Mexico
5División de Ciencias Veterinarias, Departamento Salud Pública, Centro Universitario de Ciencias Biológicas y Agropecuarias, Universidad de Guadalajara, 45221 Zapopan, JAL, Mexico

Received 28 June 2013; Revised 21 November 2013; Accepted 27 November 2013; Published 4 February 2014

Academic Editor: Marco E. M. Peluso

Copyright © 2014 Olivia Torres-Bugarín et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Linked References

  1. M. S. Kumar, “Biomarkers of disease in medicine,” Current Trends in Science, pp. 403–417, 2009. View at Google Scholar
  2. T. l. Fry and M. R. Dunbar, “A review of biomarkers used for wildlife damage and disease management,” in Proceedings of the Wildlife Damage Management Conference, vol. 12, pp. 217–222. View at Google Scholar
  3. S. Bonassi, E. Coskun, M. Ceppi et al., “The HUman MicroNucleus project on eXfoLiated buccal cells (HUMNXL): the role of life-style, host factors, occupational exposures, health status, and assay protocol,” Mutation Research, vol. 728, no. 3, pp. 88–97, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  4. O. Torres-Bugarin, M. G. Zavala-Cerna, A. Flores-Garcia, and M. L. Ramos-Ibarra, “Procedimientos básicos de la prueba de micronúcleos y anormalidades nucleares en células exfoliadas de mucosa oral,” El Residente, vol. 1, pp. 4–11, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  5. N. Holland, C. Bolognesi, M. Kirsch-Volders et al., “The micronucleus assay in human buccal cells as a tool for biomonitoring DNA damage: the HUMN project perspective on current status and knowledge gaps,” Mutation Research, vol. 659, no. 1-2, pp. 93–108, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  6. P. Thomas, N. Holland, C. Bolognesi et al., “Buccal micronucleus cytome assay,” Nature Protocols, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 825–837, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  7. M. Fenech and S. Bonassi, “The effect of age, gender, diet and lifestyle on DNA damage measured using micronucleus frequency in human peripheral blood lymphocytes,” Mutagenesis, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 43–49, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  8. M. F. Fenech, “Dietary reference values of individual micronutrients and nutriomes for genome damage prevention: current status and a road map to the future,” American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 91, no. 5, pp. 1438S–1454S, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  9. L. Fenech and J. Rinaldi, “The relationship between micronuclei in human lymphocytes and plasma levels of vitamin C, vitamin E, vitamin B12 and folic acid,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 15, no. 7, pp. 1405–1411, 1994. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  10. N. Titenko-Holland, R. A. Jacob, N. Shang, A. Balaraman, and M. T. Smith, “Micronuclei in lymphocytes and exfoliated buccal cells of postmenopausal women with dietary changes in folate,” Mutation Research, vol. 417, no. 2-3, pp. 101–114, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  11. M. Schneider, K. Diemer, K. Engelhart, H. Zankl, W. E. Trommer, and H. K. Biesalski, “Protective effects of vitamins C and E on the numbers of micronuclei in lymphocytes in smokers and their role in ascorbate free radical formation in plasma,” Free Radical Research, vol. 34, no. 3, pp. 209–219, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  12. M. Fenech, P. Baghurst, W. Luderer et al., “Low intake of calcium, folate, nicotinic acid, vitamin E, retinol, β-carotene and high intake of pantothenic acid, biotin and riboflavin are significantly associated with increased genome instability—results from a dietary intake and micronucleus index survey in South Australia,” Carcinogenesis, vol. 26, no. 5, pp. 991–999, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  13. P. Huang, B. Huang, H. Weng, K. Nakayama, and K. Morimoto, “Effects of lifestyle on micronuclei frequency in human lymphocytes in Japanese hard-metal workers,” Preventive Medicine, vol. 48, no. 4, pp. 383–388, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  14. S. Reichhold, O. Neubauer, V. Ehrlich, S. Knasmuller, and K. H. Wagner, “No acute and persistent DNA damage after an Ironman triathlon,” Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, vol. 17, no. 8, pp. 1913–1919, 2008. View at Google Scholar
  15. A. Hartmann, S. Pfuhler, C. Dennog, D. Germadnik, A. Pilger, and G. Speit, “Exercise-induced DNA effects in human leukocytes are not accompanied by increased formation of 8-hydroxy-2'-deoxyguanosine or induction of micronuclei,” Free Radical Biology and Medicine, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 245–251, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  16. C. Schiffl, C. Zieres, and H. Zankl, “Exhaustive physical exercise increases frequency of micronuclei,” Mutation Research, vol. 389, no. 2-3, pp. 243–246, 1997. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  17. K. Umegaki, M. Higuchi, K. Inoue, and T. Esashi, “Influence of one bout of intensive running on lymphocyte micronucleus frequencies in endurance-trained and untrained men,” International Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 19, no. 8, pp. 581–585, 1998. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  18. W. Schmid, “The micronucleus test,” Mutation Research, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 9–15, 1975. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  19. L. Migliore, L. Cocchi, and R. Scarpato, “Detection of the centromere in micronuclei by fluorescence in situ hybridization: its application to the human lymphocyte micronucleus assay after treatment with four suspected aneugens,” Mutagenesis, vol. 11, no. 3, pp. 285–290, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  20. A. J. Afshari, P. W. McGregor, J. W. Allen, and J. C. Fuscoe, “Centromere analysis of micronuclei induced by 2-aminoanthraquinone in cultured mouse splenocytes using both a gamma-satellite DNA probe and anti-kinetochore antibody,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 24, no. 2, pp. 96–102, 1994. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  21. L. Migliore, C. Bevilacqua, and R. Scarpato, “Cytogenetic study and FISH analysis in lymphocytes of systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) and systemic sclerosis (SS) patients,” Mutagenesis, vol. 14, no. 2, pp. 227–231, 1999. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  22. C. Ramos-Remus, G. Dorazco-Barragan, F. J. Aceves-Avila et al., “Genotoxicity assessment using micronuclei assay in rheumatoid arthritis patients,” Clinical and Experimental Rheumatology, vol. 20, no. 2, pp. 208–212, 2002. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  23. M. O. A. Rodríguez-Vázquez, C. Ramos-Remus, G. Zúñiga, and O. Torres-Bugarín, “Evaluación de la genotoxicidad de la ciclofosfamida mediante prueba de micronúcleos en pacientes con lupus eritematoso sistémico,” Revista Mexicana de Reumatología, vol. 15, no. 2, pp. 41–45, 2000. View at Google Scholar
  24. O. Torres-Bugarín, R. Covarrubias-Bugarín, A. L. Zamora-Perez, B. M. G. Torres-Mendoza, M. García-Ulloa, and F. G. Martínez-Sandoval, “Anabolic androgenic steroids induce micronuclei in bucca mucosa cells of bodybuilders,” British Journal of Sports Medicine, vol. 41, no. 9, pp. 592–596, 2007. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  25. J. A. Heddle, M. C. Cimino, M. Hayashi et al., “Micronuclei as an index of cytogenetic damage: past, present, and future,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 18, no. 4, pp. 277–291, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  26. G. M. A. Aires, J. R. C. Meireles, P. C. Oliveira et al., “Micronuclei as biomarkers for evaluating the risk of malignant transformation in the uterine cervix,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 10, no. 3, pp. 1558–1564, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  27. G. Zúñiga, O. Torres-Bugaŕin, M. P. Ramírez-Muñoz et al., “Spontaneous micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes from 35 mammalian species,” Mutation Research, vol. 369, no. 1, pp. 123–127, 1996. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  28. G. Zúñiga-González, O. Torres-Bugarín, J. Luna-Aguirre et al., “Spontaneous micronuclei in peripheral blood erythrocytes from 54 animal species (mammals, reptiles and birds): part two,” Mutation Research, vol. 467, no. 1, pp. 99–103, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  29. G. Zúñiga-González, O. Torres-Bugarín, A. Zamora-Perez et al., “Differences in the number of micronucleated erythrocytes among young and adult animals including humans—spontaneous micronuclei in 43 species,” Mutation Research, vol. 494, no. 1-2, pp. 161–167, 2001. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  30. B. C. Gómez-Meda, A. L. Zamora-Perez, J. Luna-Aguirre et al., “Nuclear abnormalities in erythrocytes of parrots (Aratinga canicularis) related to genotoxic damage,” Avian Pathology, vol. 35, no. 3, pp. 206–210, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  31. J. L. Zavala-Aguirre, O. Torres-Bugarín, H. R. Buelna-Osben et al., “Induction of micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities by cyclophosphamide and colchicine in Xenotoca melanosoma (Pisces, Goodeidae) from Lake la Alberca in Michoacán, México,” Journal of Environmental Science and Health A, vol. 45, no. 1, pp. 75–81, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  32. C. Alvarez-Moya, A. Santerre-Lucas, G. Zúñiga-González, O. Torres-Bugarín, E. Padilla-Camberos, and A. Feria-Velasco, “Evaluation of genotoxic activity of maleic hydrazide, ethyl methane sulfonate, and N-nitroso diethylamine in Tradescantia,” Salud Publica de Mexico, vol. 43, no. 6, pp. 563–569, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  33. C. A. Squier and M. J. Kremer, “Biology of oral mucosa and esophagus,” Journal of the National Cancer Institute, no. 29, pp. 7–15, 2001. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  34. J. M. W. Slack, “Stem cells in epithelial tissues,” Science, vol. 287, no. 5457, pp. 1431–1433, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  35. P. E. Tolbert, C. M. Shy, and J. W. Allen, “Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in buccal smears: methods development,” Mutation Research, vol. 271, no. 1, pp. 69–77, 1992. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  36. O. Torres-Bugarín, A. De Anda-Casillas, M. P. Ramírez-Muñoz, J. Sánchez-Corona, J. M. Cantú, and G. Zúñiga, “Determination of diesel genotoxicity in firebreathers by micronuclei and nuclear abnormalities in buccal mucosa,” Mutation Research, vol. 413, no. 3, pp. 277–281, 1998. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  37. O. Torres Bugarin, Evaluación de la genotoxicidad de las drogas antineoplásicas mediante el conteo de micronúcleos y otras anormalidades nucleares en mucosa bucal y micronúcleos en eritrocitos de sangre periférica [Doctorado en Genética], 2000.
  38. P. E. Tolbert, C. M. Shy, and J. W. Allen, “Micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in buccal smears: a field test in snuff users,” American Journal of Epidemiology, vol. 134, no. 8, pp. 840–850, 1991. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  39. V. M. S. Raj, “Dose response relationship of nuclear changes with fractionated radiotherapy in assessing radiosensitivity of oral squamous cell carcinoma,” Journal of Clinical and Experimental Dentistry, vol. 3, no. 3, pp. e193–e200, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  40. P. Thomas, S. Harvey, T. Gruner, and M. Fenech, “The buccal cytome and micronucleus frequency is substantially altered in Down's syndrome and normal ageing compared to young healthy controls,” Mutation Research, vol. 638, no. 1-2, pp. 37–47, 2008. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  41. A. K. Nersesyan, “Nuclear buds in exfoliated human cells,” Mutation Research, vol. 588, no. 1, pp. 64–68, 2005. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  42. C. Bolognesi, S. Knasmueller, A. Nersesyan, P. Thomas, and M. Fenech, “The HUMNxl scoring criteria for different cell types and nuclear anomalies in the buccal micronucleus cytome assay—an update and expanded photogallery,” Mutation Research, vol. 753, no. 2, pp. 100–113, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  43. A. Nersesyan, M. Kundi, K. Atefie, R. Schulte-Hermann, and S. Knasmüller, “Effect of staining procedures on the results of micronucleus assays with exfoliated oral mucosa cells,” Cancer Epidemiology Biomarkers and Prevention, vol. 15, no. 10, pp. 1835–1840, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  44. S. Grover, A. Mujib, A. Jahagirdar, N. Telagi, and P. Kulkarni, “A comparative study for selectivity of micronuclei in oral exfoliated epithelial cells,” Journal of Cytology, vol. 29, no. 4, pp. 230–235, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  45. S. Palaskar and C. Jindal, “Evaluation of micronuclei using Papanicolaou and may Grunwald Giemsa stain in individuals with different tobacco habits -A comparative study,” Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 4, no. 6, pp. 3607–3613, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  46. A. L. Zamora-Perez, B. Lazalde-Ramos, M. G. Sosa-Macías, B. C. Gómez-Meda, O. Torres-Bugarin, and G. M. Zuñiga-Gonzalez, “Increased number of micronucleated cells in the buccal mucosa of brickmakers,” Current Topics in Genetics, vol. 4, pp. 70–78, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  47. M. Ceppi, F. Gallo, and S. Bonassi, “Study design and statistical analysis of data in human population studies with the micronucleus assay,” Mutagenesis, vol. 26, no. 1, pp. 247–252, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  48. A. A. Domínguez, D. Carnesoltas, L. Ibrahín et al., “Efectos citogenéticos por exposición ocupacional a citostáticos,” Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, vol. 42, no. 6, pp. 487–492, 2004. View at Google Scholar
  49. R. Castro, V. Ramírez, and P. Cuenca, “Micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities in the oral epithelium of female workers exposed to pesticides,” Revista de Biologia Tropical, vol. 52, no. 3, pp. 611–621, 2004. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  50. S. Gómez-Arroyo, Y. Díaz-Sánchez, M. A. Meneses-Pérez, R. Villalobos-Pietrini, and J. De León-Rodríguez, “Cytogenetic biomonitoring in a Mexican floriculture worker group exposed to pesticides,” Mutation Research, vol. 466, no. 1, pp. 117–124, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  51. N. Sailaja, M. Chandrasekhar, P. V. Rekhadevi et al., “Genotoxic evaluation of workers employed in pesticide production,” Mutation Research, vol. 609, no. 1, pp. 74–80, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  52. V. Carlin, A. J. Artioli, M. A. Matsumoto et al., “Biomonitoring of DNA damage and cytotoxicity in individuals exposed to cone beam computed tomography,” Dentomaxillofacial Radiology, vol. 39, no. 5, pp. 295–299, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  53. A. Domínguez Odio, E. I. Rojas Vázquez, L. I. Romero García, J. C. Rodríguez Tito, and I. Pérez Andrés, “Buccoepithelial cytologic lesions in workers exposed to chemical products,” Revista Médica del Instituto Mexicano del Seguro Social, vol. 43, no. 3, pp. 221–227, 2005. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  54. I. Tejedor-Casiani, Biomonitoreo de células bucales a partir de micronúcleos en soldadores de metales en Cartagena (Bolívar) [Master in Toxicology], Departamento de Toxicología, Facultad de Medicina, 2011.
  55. J. Moran-Martinez, K. D. Monreal-De Luna, N. D. Betancourt-Martinez et al., “Genotoxicity in oral epithelial cells in children caused by nickel in metal crowns,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 12, no. 3, pp. 3178–3185, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  56. K. Rudrama Devi, D. Madhavi, and J. Karuna Kumari, “Nuclear anomolies in exfoliated buccal cells of Occupationally lead exposed population,” International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 2, no. 4, pp. 710–716, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  57. S. Sudha, S. K. Kripa, P. Shibily, and J. Shyn, “Elevated frequencies of micronuclei and other nuclear abnormalities of chrome plating workers occupationally exposed to hexavalent chromium,” Iranian Journal of Cancer Prevention, vol. 4, no. 3, pp. 120–125, 2011. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  58. S. P. Gamino-Gutierrez, C. I. Gonzalez-Perez, M. E. Gonsebatt, and M. G. Monroy-Fernandez, “Arsenic and lead contamination in urban soils of Villa de la Paz (Mexico) affected by historical mine wastes and its effect on children's health studied by micronucleated exfoliated cells assay,” Environmental Geochemistry and Health, vol. 35, no. 1, pp. 37–51, 2013. View at Google Scholar
  59. S. B. Vuyyuri, M. Ishaq, D. Kuppala, P. Grover, and Y. R. Ahuja, “Evaluation of micronucleus frequencies and DNA damage in glass workers exposed to arsenic,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 47, no. 7, pp. 562–570, 2006. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  60. D. Pinto, J. M. Ceballos, G. García et al., “Increased cytogenetic damage in outdoor painters,” Mutation Research, vol. 467, no. 2, pp. 105–111, 2000. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  61. M. I. Khan, I. Ahmad, A. A. Mahdi et al., “Elevated blood lead levels and cytogenetic markers in buccal epithelial cells of painters in India,” Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 1347–1354, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  62. A. L. González-Yebra, C. Kornhauser, G. Barbosa-Sabanero, E. L. Pérez-Luque, K. Wrobel, and K. Wrobel, “Exposure to organic solvents and cytogenetic damage in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa from shoe workers,” International Archives of Occupational and Environmental Health, vol. 82, no. 3, pp. 373–380, 2009. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  63. S. Sellappa, S. Prathyumnan, S. Joseph, and K. S. Keyan, “Micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells from chromium exposed tannery workers,” International Journal of Bioscience Biochemistry and Bioinformatics, vol. 1, no. 1, 2011. View at Google Scholar
  64. G. Wultsch, A. Nersesyan, M. Mišík et al., “Formation of micronuclei and other nuclear anomalies in exfoliated nasal and oral cells: results of a human study with workers in a power plant processing poultry litter,” International Journal of Hygiene and Environmental Health, vol. 216, no. 1, pp. 82–87, 2012. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  65. S. Viegas, C. Ladeira, C. Nunes et al., “Genotoxic effects in occupational exposure to formaldehyde: a study in anatomy and pathology laboratories and formaldehyde-resins production,” Journal of Occupational Medicine and Toxicology, vol. 5, no. 1, article 25, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  66. L. N. Rickes, M. C. Alvarengo, T. M. Souza, G. L. Garcias, and M. G. Martino-Roth, “Increased micronucleus frequency in exfoliated cells of the buccal mucosa in hairdressers,” Genetics and Molecular Research, vol. 9, no. 3, pp. 1921–1928, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  67. P. V. Garcia, D. Linhares, A. F. Amaral, and A. S. Rodrigues, “Exposure of thermoelectric power-plant workers to volatile organic compounds from fuel oil: genotoxic and cytotoxic effects in buccal epithelial cells,” Mutation Research, vol. 747, no. 2, pp. 197–201, 2012. View at Google Scholar
  68. S. B. Diler and S. Ergene, “Nuclear anomalies in the buccal cells of calcite factory workers,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 33, no. 2, pp. 374–378, 2010. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  69. E. M. Ragragio, C. P. Belleza, M. C. Narciso, and G. L. S. Su, “Assessment of micronucleus frequency in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells among fisher folks exposed to mine tailings in Marinduque Island, Philippines,” Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Medicine, vol. 3, no. 4, pp. 315–317, 2010. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  70. M. G. Martino-Roth, J. Viégas, M. Amaral, L. Oliveira, F. L. S. Ferreira, and B. Erdtmann, “Evaluation of genotoxicity through micronuclei test in workers of car and battery repair garages,” Genetics and Molecular Biology, vol. 25, no. 4, pp. 495–500, 2000. View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  71. C. B. Manas Ranjan Ray, M. Senjuti, R. Sanghita, and L. Twisha, “Micronucleus frequencies and nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of firefighters,” International Journal of Human Genetics, vol. 5, no. 1, pp. 45–48, 2005. View at Google Scholar
  72. A. Çelik, T. Çavaş, and S. Ergene-Gözükara, “Cytogenetic biomonitoring in petrol station attendants: micronucleus test in exfoliated buccal cells,” Mutagenesis, vol. 18, no. 5, pp. 417–421, 2003. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus
  73. K. S. Rajkokila and M. V. Usharani, “Nuclear anomalies in exfoliated buccal epithelial cells of petrol station attendants in Tamilnadu, South India,” Journal of Medical Genetics and Genomics, vol. 2, no. 2, pp. 18–22, 2010. View at Google Scholar
  74. P. V. Rekhadevi, M. Mahboob, M. F. Rahman, and P. Grover, “Determination of genetic damage and urinary metabolites in fuel filling station attendants,” Environmental and Molecular Mutagenesis, vol. 52, no. 4, pp. 310–318, 2011. View at Publisher · View at Google Scholar · View at Scopus