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Disease Markers
Volume 2015 (2015), Article ID 251403, 9 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/251403
Review Article

Serum and Urine Biomarkers for Human Renal Cell Carcinoma

1Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Urology Unit ICOT, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Franco Faggiana 1668, 04100 Latina, Italy
2Department of Translational Medical Science, University of Naples “Federico II”, Via Sergio Pansini 5, 80131 Naples, Italy
3Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Pathology Unit ICOT, Sapienza University of Rome, Via Franco Faggiana 1668, 04100 Latina, Italy
4Department of Medico-Surgical Sciences and Biotechnologies, Faculty of Pharmacy and Medicine, Sapienza University of Rome, Corso della Repubblica 79, 04100 Latina, Italy

Received 30 December 2014; Accepted 26 March 2015

Academic Editor: Donald H. Chace

Copyright © 2015 A. L. Pastore et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract

Renal cell carcinoma (RCC) diagnosis is mostly achieved incidentally by imaging provided for unrelated clinical reasons. The surgical management of localized tumors has reported excellent results. The therapy of advanced RCC has evolved considerably over recent years with the widespread use of the so-called “targeted therapies.” The identification of molecular markers in body fluids (e.g., sera and urine), which can be used for screening, diagnosis, follow-up, and monitoring of drug-based therapy in RCC patients, is one of the most ambitious challenges in oncologic research. Although there are some promising reports about potential biomarkers in sera, there is limited available data regarding urine markers for RCC. The following review reports some of the most promising biomarkers identified in the biological fluids of RCC patients.